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33 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Charles V
Holy Roman Emperor (1519-56) during the early years of the Protestant Reformation
Johannes von Staupitz
head of the Augustinians in Saxony; Luther’s friend, advocate, mentor, and confessor; advised Luther to trust in God’s forgiveness and love; recommended that Luther be appointed to the faculty of Frederick the Wise’s new university in Wittenberg (saw opportunity for Luther to come to peace over his issue of uncertainty regarding confession and penance)
Pope Julius II
in 1510 announced an indulgence to pay for the construction of St. Peter’s cathedral in Rome
John Tetzel
Dominican, was appointed sub commissioner of the sale of indulgences by Archbishop Albert of Brandenurg.
Philip Melanchthon
German reformer who assisted and supported Martin Luther. Melanchthon was the primary author of the Augsburg Confession
Augsburg Confession
A Lutheran confession of faith composed primarily by the German humanist and theologian Philip Melanchthon and approved by Martin Luther.
A legislative body
The Twelve Articles
“The Just and Fundamental Artibles of All the Peasantry and Tenants of Spiritual and Temporal Powers by Whom They Think Themselves Oppressed” written in early 1525; within 2 months there were 25,000 copies spread throughout Europe; this petition was published by one of several bands of peasants roving the area of Lake Constance and the city of Memmingen in 1525; made the exegesis of scripture the basis for their material demands, as opposed to earlier peasant protests that relied on appeal to common law; demands were also directly against the Church, not as an ecclesiastical organization but as a major landowner in Germany
Ulrich Zwingli
Swiss reformer and one of the founders of the Reformed tradition within Protestantism, along with John Calvin and John Knox
(rebaptizers) Members of a variety of 16th century sects that held in common the belief that infant baptism was not valid and that for this reason believing adults who had been baptized as children must be baptized a second time.
Conrad Grebel
humanist living in Zurich at the time of Zwingli. In January 1525, he administered the sacrament of baptism to an adult who had been baptized as an infant. Was a leader of the Swiss Brethren (took seriously Zwingli’s call to search the scriptures apart from either church authority or church tradition). He came to the conclusion that infant baptism was not found in scripture. The Brethren also advocated a free confessional church.
Balthasar Hubmaier
Protestant minister in Waldshut, Austria; surprised his congregation in 1525 by declaring his support for the doctrine of rebaptism; arrested and compelled to recant; wandered throughout eastern Europe and settled in Moravia; converted a Lutheran congregation to Anabaptism; eventually arrested and burned at the stake for disturbing the peace; his wife was drowned in the Dunabe
Melchior Hoffman
a leatherworker; First a Lutheran, then Zwingli, and finally an Anabaptist. Hoffman began preaching the imminent “Day of the Lord,” this attracted many people. He predicted that he would be imprisoned for 6 months before the end of the world. He was imprisoned by officials for disturbing the peace.
Has Hut
a bookbinder and book dealer; Defended the idea of complete nonviolence actions (even in concern with defending one’s own family). Wandered souther Germany and Eastern Europe preaching nonviolenc and the imminent return of Christ. Arrested on charges of preaching free love and communism
Jan Matthys
from Haarlem. Taught that the elect were duty-bound to use a bloody sword to eliminate the ungodly in preparation for the return of Christ. Announced that like Gideon in the Old Testament he would go forth and destroy the enemy with but a handful of men. He was quickly killed
John of Leiden
took the lead after matthys
Royal Absolutism
aim to establish the monarch as supreme within the state. This was usually accomplished through improved efficiency of the organs of government and a redirection of authority to make all branches of government, and even religious authorities, answerable to the sovereign.
French Calvinists. The Huguenots engaged in a series of civil wars (1562-1598) with Rman Catholics until a compromise settlement was reached with the royal Edict of Nantes (1598). The Huguenots were given control over certain parts of France, but Roman Catholicism remained the official relifion in most regions.
Jacob Arminius
Dutch reformed theologian. Reacting against the determinism of Calvinism, according to which divine grace irresistible, Arminius stressed the freedom of human beings accepting grace. Arminius and his followers also argued that Christ died for all of humanity and not only for the elect.
Synod of Dort
An assembly of Dutch Reformed theologians at the city of Dort convened for the purpose of addressing the views of the Arminians. In defending Calvinism, the synod affirmed five of its majorprinciples: absolute and unconditional election, an atonement whose efficacy is limited only to the elect, the complete depravity of human nature, the irresistibility of grace, and the final perseverance of the elect.
Five doctrines that have become the distinguishing markers of orthodox Calvinism. T – total depravity, U for unconditional election, L for limited atonement, I for irresistible grace, and P for perseverance of the saints.
Elizabethan Settlement
The policy of Elizabeth I of England regarding religion, it followed a moderate course in condemning extreme forms of Protestantism as well as certain features of Catholicism.
Book of Common Prayer
official service book of the church of England containing liturgy and prayers
Anglican Communion
church of England and related churches that recognize the authority of the see of canterbury
John Knox
swiss reformer and one of founders of the reformed tradition along with Zwingli and calvin
greek word meaning elder
a form of ecclesiastical government in which churches are independent and self governed
Oliver Cromwell
puritan leader who ruled England from 1654-58
Teresa of Avila
saint mystic and reformer of the Carmelite order
John of the Cross
Spanish monk and mystic
Index of Forbidden Books
works considered dangerous to the faith and morals of catholics
doctrines and principles articulated by the roman catholic church in france in 1682 to limit papal influence
within roman catholic church especially in the seventeenth through nineteenth centuries to assert the supremacy of the papacy in rome (which lies beyond the mountains) over ecclesiastical organization at national and local levels