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35 Cards in this Set

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founding of Waldensians
Valdes (Peter) weathy merchant S French city of Lyons 1170 heard a street performer sing story of St. Alexus who abandoned his bride on their wedding night to live in poverty, only to return later to die unrecognized in his father's house
humiliati
clergy, unmarried laity and married couples who performed manual work in the cloth industry, dressed in simple undyed garments, refused oaths and litigation based upon biblical grounds, and gave away all income beyond what would satisfy their basic needs. Did not wander or beg, but wanted to preach, which was often denied to them.
Cathars
called themselves "good men" or "good xians" from E. Mediterranean or Balkans, began to send missionaries to w in 1140s. highly organized counter church to the catholic church, with their own deacon, clergy, ascetics, theology, and rituals. dualists.
perfect
Cathar leaders who adheared fully to ascetic requirements including severe fasting, vegetarianism, and abhorrence of sex
believers
Cathar adherents who did not fulfil ascetic requirements in detail, but who often would summon a perfect on their deathbed to carry out ao ritual to make them perfects
ritual to turn Cathar believers into perfects on their deathbeds
consolamentum
starving to death after becoming a perfect so as not to relapse into the world of matter in cathar beliefs
endura
modefied dualists
Satan the creator of the material world had once been subordinate to the good God
radical dualists
evil was independent power equal to good
date/pope of Crusade
Pope Innocent III 1208
date francis founded order
1208
Dominicans
early 13C Dominic de Guzman a canon from Castile Spain. Traveled to France and shocked at heresy,particularly Catharism. Envisioned order focused on preaching and combating heresy. developed life of poverty to gain credibility with Cathars' sympathizers
when it became required for new orders to adopt one of the traditional monastic rules and newly composed rules were forbidden
1215 4th lateran council
rule that Dominic adopted when pope refused to let him create new order
Rule of St Augustine
What happened at the Council of Lyons?
1274 all but the Franciscans, Dominicans, Carmelites, and Augustinian friars were suppressed and forced to give up begging
Joachim of Fiore
1135-1202 commented on apocolypse
aquires status as a prophet among his lifetime among those who sympathize with him
believed structure of salvation history has to reflect internal reality of deity so he divides salvation history into three "status" one of the father, one of the son, and one of the holy spirit. age of spirit (transitional period bt two circles) would be age of antichrist and tribulation. Would also be age of the appearance of two orders of spiritual men- viri spirituales. he dies in 1202 and the Franciscan and Dominican symphathizers (1210 and 1215) thought he was a prophesier
francis was called...
alter christus
Gerardo of Borgo San Donnino
published an Introductorius of Joachims work with a commentary which announced the age of the spirit was at hand. De Periculis Novissimorum Temporum On the Perils of the last days sees the Franciscans and Dominicans as agents of the antichrist- campagn against mendicants
fraticelli zizanti
"spiritual" branch of the order of franciscans
bull reiterates that papacy was sole legal proprietor of all property franciscans used- elevated franciscan poverty to status of official doctrine
Exiit qui seminat (1279) important in history to doctrine of infallibility (ratified as official doctrine in 1870 but originates in dispute over franciscan poverty)
hope is by inventing notion of infallibility they can prevent any further pope from changing this declared official theology. Franciscans responded that when pope speaks what he says is de fide and cannot ever be revoked by any pope
Spirituals were happy with this but they still wanted more- complained that thye were leading hipocritical life and they should not accept money
bull in which pope renounces all property of franciscans
Ad conditorem canonum (1322) John XXII
bull declaring notion that X and apostles had no property a heresy
Cum inter nonnullos (1323) John 22
bull that licensed the use of torture during inquisition under certain conditions
1252 Bull Ad Ex Turpanda
concluded that torture was useless bc it continued until the accused confessed
Nicolas of Emmerich (15th C)
general word/general service liturgy to which everyone in the parish was invited. A homily against heresy would be preached and then the sentences would be read out, beginning with the least severe penalties were normally fasting, additional church attendance, public scourging, pilgrimages,
These penences did not differ from those in sacrimental confession. The aged could find communtations, substitutes
sermo generalis
most common inquisitorial punishment
wearing of yellow crosses
thick walls based on monastic designs had separate cells for prisoners, had windows, prisoners weren’t chained to cells, allowed into yard for exercise
morus lareus
prison with thin walls based upon dungon like a maximum security prison. No windows, prisoners chained to walls. Diet of all prisoners consisted of bread and water. Married people were the only people allowed to be visited. But rules were circumvented regularly; prison keepers were bribed.
morus strictus
what things hastened the disappearance of the cathars?
The inquisition helped to further the collapse but wasn’t wholly responsible.
Malleus Maleficarum (1486) 1478 Queen Isabella of Castile brought the inquisition back
Torquemada, OP one of the most infamous inquisitors ever
Servetus burned as a heretic
Faith is not somethng to be chosen in this period heratic means to choose
Plato showed it was the responsibility to the state to show no tolerance to the godless
wandering preacher who included women in his wandering preachings. Eventually established a house of Fonteurault bc society was outraged bc he allowed women to lead the mendicant life
- Robert of Abrissel
an ordained priest who lives collegiately with other men in a community and probably follows a rule- part of the regular clergy
canon
Premonstratensians
founded by Norbert 1120
Norbert solved the problem of women wanting to be affiliated with his order by redefining the understanding of a double monastery
There the sisters had a subservient role- tended the church when the canons sung the liturgical offices but otherwise were assigned humble if not humiliating jobs such as darning and doing laundry for male community
Had a role much like lay breathren in Cistercian communities
Recruitment of women did remain vigorous
Those who opposed them began to organize and work to overthrow their fellow monestaries. They succeeded- eventually the order suppressed the double monestaries and decreed that the women had to live in separate houses far away from the mother monastery
This may have improved their status- gives them more opportunity for self-government
Become at this point canonesses, no longer handmaidens, and begin singing the hours
Autonomy still circumscribed by visitations by a prior, and they paid a real economic price for their semiindependence- once they stopped providing material services for the canons, they got less and less support from those abbeys
In the end at 1200 decided women would no longer be admitted to the order
Innocent III ratified ths decision which dooms female Premonstratensians to slow gradual extinction as they died out
Gilbertines
Founded by Gilbert 1130
Had a lot of women his parish approaching him wanting to live the monastic life. He constructed for the women a church and cloister for them against the wall of his own house
Soon new grants and grants of land were made to him- there was a real need
Gilbert decides to rejuvinate institution of double monestary though at first he wanted his nuns associated with Cistercians. Order declines bc they are becoming shy at this time of allowing new womens communities. So he starts to link communities of canons with communities of nuns. Typical gilbertine monestaries had a community of men on one side with community of women on the other. Canons sang hours and celebrated mass for nuns in the central church. Men and women were hidden from each other by a screen when in central church- placed wafer on little turn table
Women sing hours in their own choir
But then there was a sexual scandel- woman found to be pregnant
Scandel meant attack on double cloister- canons attacked and asked for completely separate spaces, but Gilbert had some powerful friends who appealed for him and the double cloister survived

Dissolution of monasteries- when King Henry orders monestaries to be sacked and property given over to crown in 16th C the Gilbertines still had 25 houses
Margerite Porete
Beguine writes the Mirror of Simple Souls famous heratic her book and she are burned
sensored the Beguines allowed them to live a life of penance and celebacy so long as they stayed in their houses and submitted to clerical supervision. Eventually they attached themselves to franciscan and domincan friars and established cordial relations
Council of Vienne 1312