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35 Cards in this Set

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heredity
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clone
A lineage of genetically identical individuals or cells
life cycle
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somatic cell
Any cell in a multicellular organism except a sperom or egg cell
karyotype
A method of organizing the chromosomes of a cell in relation to number, size, and type
homologous chromosome
Chromosome pairs of the same length, centromere position, and staining pattern that possess genes for the same characters at corresponding loci. One homologous chromosome is inherited from the organism's father, the other from the mother
autosome
A chromosome that is not directlly involved in determing sex, as opposed to the sex chromosomes.
gamete
A haploid egg or sperm cell; gametes unite during sexual reproduction to produce a diploid zygote.
haploid cell
A cell containing only one set of chromosomes (n).
diploid cell
A cell containing two sets of chromosomes (2n), one set inherited from each parent.
syngamy
The process of cellular union during fertilization
zygote
The diploid product of the union of haploid gametes in conception; a fertilized egg
meiosis
A two-stage type of cell division in sexually reproducing organisms that results in gametes with half the chromosome number of the original cell.
sporophyte
The multicellular diploid form in organisms undergoing alternation of generations that results from a union of gametes and that meiotically produces haploid spores that grow into the gametophyte generation.
gametophyte
The multicellular haploid form in organisms undergoing alernation of generations, which mitotically produces haploid gametesthat unite and grow into the sporophyte generation.
synapsis
The pairing of replicated homologous chromosomes during prophase I of meiosis.
tetrad
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trait
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alleles
An alternative form of a gene
homozygous
Having two identical alleles for a given trait.
heterozygous
Having two different alleles for a given genetic character.
phenotype
The physical and physiological traits of an organism
genotype
The genetic makeup of an organisn
incomplete dominance
A type of inheritance in which F1 hyprids have an appearance that is intermediate between the phenotypes of the parental varieties.
complete dominance
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codominance
A phenotypic situation in which both alleles are expressed in their heterozygote
epistasis
A phenomenon in which one gene alters the expression of another gene that is independly inherited
mutant phenotype
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sex-linked genes
A gene located on a sex chromosome
genetic recombination
The general term for the production of offspring that combine traits of the two parents
trisomic
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monosomic
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polyploidy
A chromosomal alteration in which the organism possesses more thatn two complete chromosome sets.
translocation
An aberration in chromosome structure resulting from an error in meiosis or form mutagens; attachment of a chromosomal fragment to a nonhomologous chromosome
nondisjunction
An accident of meiosis or mitosis, in which both members of a pair of homologous chromosomes or both sister chromatids fail to move apart properly.