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48 Cards in this Set

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Where is bile produced?
In the liver
Where is bile stored?
In the gallbladder
How much bilecan the gallbladder hold?
2 oz or 60 cc
Meds are metabolized by the _______ and excreted by the _______?
liver
kidneys
What are signs and symptomsofhigh amonialevles inthebody?
Confusion
Loss of memorFy
Forgetfullness
Whatis caused by high bilirubenin the blood?
Jaundice
From excessive RBC destruction
erythroblastosis fetalis (death from RBC destruction)
Prehepatic
Within the liver
Hepatitis or cirrhosis
Intra Hepatic
Obstruction of bile
cholithiasis (gall stones)
Post Hepatic
Bilirubenis attractedto elastic tissue.
sclera of the eye.
When does a person recieve Hepatitis vaccine?
First injection, then 1 month later,then6months from 1st injection.
Hepatitis A, route, incubation, seriological marker.
Fecal-oral route
15-45 days incubation
IgM
Hepatitis B incubation, serological markers.
40-180 days
HBcAG, HBeAG, HBsAG
How big will the area be after titer if antibodies present?
640:1
What are main causes of Hepatitis C?
Blood and body fluids
tattoos and drugs
Where is hepatitis D mostly found?
In drug users.
How does cirrhosis effect aldosterone levels?
The aldosterone levels decrease.
How does albumin and aldosterone effect ascites?
Aldosterone may causethe bp to rise with ascites so they are to stay in lyingposition.
Albumin is given to maintain effective circulating volume.
icchymosis is bruising from what?
d?effiency ofvitamin K
How does B12 and folic acid deffiency effect hemoglobin?
Causes low hemoglobin which leads to anemia.
What causes testicular atrophy?
to much estrogen
not enough testosterone
Normal potassium level
3.5-4.5
Lowpotassiumis hypokalemia
relates to aldosterone
What is the first change in liver with alcohol?
fibrotic and necrotic
Hepatic Encepalopathy is from what?
High amonia levels
How does a pt act with hepatic Encepalopathy?
confused
impaired memory
early sign is personality change
How does lactulose work?
Draws amonia from stool, side effect is stinky poop.
How do you know if lactulose is working?
Drop inamonia levels.
Neomyacin reduces what in intestines?
Bacteria
Hepatic Encepalopathy cannot have what?
narcotics because of OD
Cirrhosis from severe hepatitis is what?
Biliary Cirrhosis
Liver function test in ptwith viral hepatitis is what?
Serum Transamanase
What are signs and symptoms of a fatty liver? (accumulation of fat in hepatocytes or called steatosis
Liver becomes yellowand enlarges,excessive fat accumulation s&s are:asymtomatic or nonspecific symptoms
What causes portal HTN?
obstruction of blood flow
What is the most commoncause of Laennec's cirrhosis?
alcohol
What is saltfor albumin?
Is a volume expander given for hypovolemia, salt poor given forthose with saltrestriction.
Why are diuretics given to pts with liver failure?
Prevent further ascites
What is esophageal varicies is not treated?
Will rupture and pt could die.
What is the procedure calledthat removesfluid from ascites?
paracentesis
ascites maintained by what?
Measurement of abdominal girth.
common side effect of paracentesis is?
Bleeding
Infection
Portal HTn
sleepomegely
What is asterixis
flapping tremors with hepatic encephalophy
What is suspectedneurotoxin for asterixix?
High amonia levels, treated with neomyacin to eridacate bacteria from the bowels.
Lactulose causes what
Large loose stoolswith low pH.
catabolizes amonia
can you have liver cancer by itsself?
It is rareto have alone.
Not functioning at 50% or better, bile thick
Sludge
Sludge causes what?
gallbladder to adhere to liver, causes cancer and choliectitis.