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29 Cards in this Set

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What is Hemorrhage?
Occurs when there is a disruption or leak in the Vascular system. Can be Internal and External.
External Hemorrhage

Serioussnes of injury depends on what 3 factors
Results from soft tissue injuries

1. anatomical source- arterial, venous, capillary.

2. Degree of cascular disruption

3. amount of blood loss patient can tolerate
Internal Hemorrhage
Resulting from Blunt/ Penetrating Injury, Acute chronic illness

Internal Bleeding can occur in chest abdomen, pelvis, retroperitoneum
Signs symptoms of Internal Hem
1.Bright red blood from mouth, rectu, or other orfice
2. vomiting cofee grounds
3. Melena- Black, tarry stools
4. Hematochezia-passage of blood through rectum
5. Dizziness/syncope on sitting or standing
6. Orthostatic hypotension
Define Hemostasis
Cessation of bleeding by chemical means
To achieve adequate oxygenation 3 parts of the cardiovascular system must work
the Heart, Vasculature, and Lungs
Define Shock
A condition where insufficient blood flow reaches the body tissues
What are the four stages of Shock?
1= Initial
2= Compensatory
3= Decompensating
4= Irreversible
What are the 4 types of Shock?
1= Distributive Shock
2= Obstructive Shock
3= Cardiogenic Shock
4= Hypovolemic Shock
The loss of competency of the vasculature.
Define Distributive Shock
What are the 3 types of Distributive Shock.
1= Septic
2= Anaphylactic
3= Neurogenic
What causes Septic Shock?
An overwhelming infection leading to vasodilation.
What causes Neurogenic Shock?
It is caused by trauma to the spinal cord resulting in the sudden loss of autonomic and motor reflexes below the injury level.
What causes Anaphylactic Shock?
Caused by a severe reaction to an allergen, antigen, drug or foreign protein.
Define Obstructive Shock
The loss of pathway
(flow of blood is obstructed which impedes circulation)
What causes Obstructive Shock?
1= airway obstruction
2= cardiac tamponade
3= tension pneumothorax
Define Cardiogenic Shock
Failure of the heart to pump effectively
What causes Cardiogenic Shock?
Large myocardial infarction, non-perfusing arrhythmias, cardiomyopathy, congestive heart failure (CHF), cardiac valve problems, trauma, tuberculosis sequelae.
Define Hypovolemic Shock
Loss of volume
(insufficient circulating volume)
What causes Hypovolemic Shock?
Burns, hemorrhage, splentic rupture, trauma, extensive bleeding.
Loss of competency of the vasulature is _______ shock.
Loss of pathways is ______ shock.
Loss of pump action by the heart is _______ shock.
Loss of volume is _______ shock.
1= Distributive
2= Obstructive
3= Cardiogenic
4= Hypovolemic
Wbat is the general management for shock?
1. establish oxygenation
2. Stop obvious hemorrhage
3. Gain IV access
4. Administer appropriate fluids
5. Correct metabolic acidosis
6. Monitor cardiac rhythm
7. Insert Urinary catheter
8. Consider PASG
How do you manage Septic Shock?
1. Fluid replacement therapy
2. Inotropic agents
3. Antibiotic therapy
4. Corticosteroids
5. Heparin
6. Possible surgical measures
How do you manage Neurogenic shock?
1. Volume replacement
2. Pressors
3. Positioning
How do you manage Anaphylatic shock?
1. Remove causation agent
2. Epinephrine
3. Diphenhydramine
4. Steriods
5. Bronchodilators
How do you manage Cardiogenic shock?
1. General shock management
2. Monitor urine output
3. treat/reverse dysrhythmias
How do you manage Hypovolemic Shock?
1. Fluid Resuscitation
2. Blood replacement
3. Surgical measures
What are 4 types of afferent signals that operate in shock?
-Pain
-Hypovolemia
-O2, CO2, H+
-Protein signals
What happens when lactate builds up?
Acidosis which worsens enzymatic processes