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62 Cards in this Set

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Poikilocytosis, an increase in the number of abnormally shaped red blood cells, is commonly seen as a sign of what type of anemia?
iron-deficiency anemia.
What is polycythemia Vera
excess red blood cells production as a result of an abnormality of the bone marrow
What are some common findings with polycythemia vera
splenomegaly
pruritis
hyperuricemia
what type of anemia is pernicious anemia? Macrocytic or microcytic
Macrocytic; the MCV can be as high as 150 fL.
What can result from G6PD deficiency?
can develop hemolytic anemia, jaundice and symptoms of hemolysis in response to a number of causes.
What test allows classification as either a microcytic anemia (below normal range) or macrocytic anemia (above normal range).
MCV - mean corpuscular volume
what is the normal MCV range?
80-96 fL.
what type of anemia is pernicious anemia? Macrocytic or microcytic
Macrocytic; the MCV can be as high as 150 fL.
What type of anemia is iron deficiency anemia?
Microcytic; MCV is usually low around 60 to 70 fL.
what other conditions can affect the MCV?
alcoholism, thalassemia and reticulocytosis
what are the symptoms of acute lymphocytic leukemia
fatigue
fever
infection
bruisin, bleeding, petechiae
SOB
enlarged lymph nodes, liver, spleen
joint pain
which chromosomal abnormality is associated with chronic myelogenous leukemia
Philadelphia Chromosome or translocation
what is a leukemoid reaction?
a leukocytosis exceeding 50,000 WBC/mm3 with a significant increase in early neutrophil precursors

Commonly seen in CML
what type of leukemia is assoc. with Auer rods
AML - Acute Myeloid Leukemia
What are the symptoms of Acute myeloid leukemia
fever, fatigue, weight loss or loss of appetite, SOB anemia, easy bruising or bleeding, petechiae, bone pain, joint pain and persistent or frequent infections.
what type of anemia would give you these symptoms:

fatigue
hair loss
paleness
Macrocytic anemia
red tongue
pernicious anemia
this is a type of cancer of plasma cells
Multiple myeloma
What are some symptoms of multiple myeloma?
CRAB
C = Calcium (elevated)
R = Renal failure
A = Anemia
B = Bone lesions
also
spinal cord compression
hyperviscosity syndrome
what are 3 common causes of thrombocytopenia
1. prosthetic cardiac valves
2. idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP)
3. TTP- Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic purpura
what are 2 causes of megaloblastic anemias
B12 deficiency
folate deficiency
what conditions are associated with B12 deficiency?
1. partial gastrectomy
2. Crohn's disease
what are 3 diseases assoc. with hemolytic anemia
hereditary spherocytosis
G6PD deficiency
thalassemia
what is the presentation of CML
presentation of CML commonly includes splenomegaly, profound leukocytosis,presence of Philadelphia chromosome, and symptoms of hypermetabolism
what type of anemia would have:

< H/H
< MCV
Normal WBC and platelets
MicrocytIc hypochromic
Low reticulocyte count
iron deficiency anemia
name 3 types of normocytic anemia
Acute blood loss
Anemia of chronic disease (can be microcytic also)
Aplastic anemia
name 2 macrocytic anemias
megaloblastic
pernicious
which test is used to determine if the patient has pernicious anemia
Schilling Test
Symptoms of acute lymphoblastic leukemia
fatigue
anemia
unexplained fever/infections
joint pain
bruisin,bleeding,petechiae
organomegaly/lymphadenopathy
How would the H/H levels look with pernicious anemia?
Elevated hemoglobin and hematocrit
Strict vegetarians are at higher risk for what type of anemia?
Megaloblastic anemia
name two hemoglobinapathies
sickle cell
thalassemia
Name the Microcytic anemias
TAILS

T - Thalassemia
A - Anemia of chronic disease
I - Iron deficiency anemia
L - Lead toxicity associated anemia
S - Sideroblastic anemia
Name the Macrocytic anemia
Megaloblastic anemia
Pernicious anemias
what is coombs test?
used to test for hemolytic anemia
when would you see a high reticulocyte count?
in hemolytic anemia
what is Coombs test
used to detect antibodies in the diagnosis of immune-mediated hemolytic anaemias.
which factor is assoc. with Hemophilia A?
Factor VIII

Also vWD
Which factor is assoc. with Hemophilia B?
Factor IX
which condition causes bleeding into the joints and soft tissues and muscles?
Hemophilia
CLL normally affects which age group?
older adults, mostly asymptomatic
ALL and AML normally affects which age group?
Kids
A hyperviscosity syndrome will most likely be caused by what conditions?
Polycythemia Vera or severe hyperglycemia
what type of anemia would pregnant women, children and menstruating women most likely have?
iron defiencey anemia
what type of anemia occurs in patients with chronic inflammatory, infectious, malignant, and autoimmune diseases
The anemia of chronic disease

It's assoc. with EPO deficiency or resistance as well as poor iron incorporation into developing erythrocytes
what are the 2 components of the coagulation cascade
platelets and plasma proteins (coagulation factors)
Factor S
Factor C
Antithrombin III
Plasminogen
Plasmin

All these are?
anticoagulant proteins that participate in thrombolysis
where does factor VIII derived from?
platelets and vascular endothelial cells

This factor participates in the binding of platelets
a deficiency of CoFactor VIII is called?
vWD
Which factors make up the coagulation complex?
Factor V, X, Ca, Platelets
what type of problems will B12 deficiency cause?
neuro problems, parasthesias in extremities, HTN, dementia
Name the Normocytic anemias
Aplastic anemias
Anemia of chronic disease
Renal failure
Spherocytosis
Hemoglobin Electrophoresis
Used to differentiate between hemoglobinopathies
Elevated serum total protein
Rouleaux on periph smear
Hx of recurrent bacterial infections
Multiple myeloma: plasma cell disorder; defective immune system
what is the MCC of hemolytic anemia world wide?
Malaria
a pt with anemia and rouleux formation; what do you suspect?
Hyperviscosity syndrome
what are the Vit K dependent clotting factors?
1972

II, VII, IX, X
What is the most important aspect of treating DIC?
Attempting to correct the underlying disorder (usually septic shock).
What is the characteristic bone marrow finding in ITP?
Increased or normal megakaryocytes
What is the progression of biochemical and hematological events in iron deficiency anemia?
Decreased serum ferritin, then decreased serum iron and total iron binding capacity, followed by a fall in MCV and MCH, and a rise in RDW
what is a complication from chronic transfusion therapy for thalassemia?
Hemosiderosis
which anti-microbial has great potential to cause aplastic anemia?
Chloramphenicol
T/F ITP may be assoc. with Lupus
True