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32 Cards in this Set

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What are 3 etiologies of anemia?
Hemolysis
Impaired production
Bleeding
MCC of iron deficiency anemia?
occult blood loss
how are platelets evaluated?
bleeding time
what are the 2 antibodies involved in immune mediated hemolytic anemia
IgM
IgG
what is metrorrhagia?
uterine bleeding occuring at irregular intervals
this measures the anticoagulant effect of warfarin and Vitamin K
Prothrombin time (PT)
which factors are measured by PT?
Fibrinogen
Prothrombin
Factors: V, VII, IX, X
what is Homan's sign?
Pain on dorsiflexion of the foot, used to detect DVT, however it is not specific
what's the MCC of DIC?
Obstetric complications (post pregnancy)
HELLP

Hemolytic anemia
Elevated Liver enzymes
Low Platelets

These are signs of what condition?
DIC-Diseminated Intravascular Coagulation, also called consumptive coagulopathy
abnormal levels of urea, creatinine, and other waste compounds in the blood as a result of insufficient filtering of the blood by the kidneys
Azotemia
what is the difference between uremia and azotemia
Both involve high levels of urea in the blood, however, uremia presents with symptoms, extreme elevation of BUN, and indicates advanced renal damage
what's the difference between HUS and TTP
TTP has more Neurological manifestations

HUS has an extreme elevation of BUN and occurs more in kids
what are 3 signs of HUS?
Thrombocytopenia
Hemolytic anemia
Renal failure
which leukemia can give you a profound leukomoid reaction?
CML
a deficiency in this factor can lead to a hypercoagulable state
Factor V
what are the S/Sx of sickle cell anemia?
Fatigue
Icteric sclera
SOB
Chest Pain
Dehydration
what lab test will be elevated with a hemolytic condition
Reticulocyte count
Unconguated Bilirubin
LDH
A macrocytic anemia assoc. with loss of taste and atrophy of the tongue mucosa
B12 deficiency anemia
what are some causes of >LDH, >bilirubin, > reticulocyte (hemolytic)
Malaria
Drug reactions
Blood transfusions
DIC
what is the Antiphospholipid syndrome
a disorder of coagulation which causes thrombosis in both arteries and veins, as well as recurrent miscarriage.
what is Idiopathic or Immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP)
low platelet count as a result of antibodies attacking platelets
name some conditions assoc. with ITP
Lupus
Meds:Quinine,heparin
Leukemia
what are the 2 general forms of hypercoagulable states?
1.Increased platelet function
2.Accelerated Activity of the clotting system
which inherited defect predisposes to venous thrombosis?
The Leiden mutation (factor V mutation)
which conditions promote hypercoagulability states?
PPOCIOS

Pregnancy
Post surgery
Oral contraceptives
CHF
Immobility

Smoking
Obesity
what are the most common manifestations of Antiphospholipid syndrome?
Venous and arterial thrombosis and recurrent fetal loss
name 2 drugs assoc. with causing thrombocytopenia
Quinidine
Heparin (HIT)
This is an autoimmune disorder resulting in platelet antibody formation and excess destruction of platelets
ITP- Idiopathic Thrombocytopenic Purpura
This disorder is a combination of thrombocytopenia, hemolytic anemia, renal failure, fever, and neurologic abnormalities
TTP- Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura
which liver factors require vitamin K for their synthesis?
prothrombin
Factors: VII, IX, X
where is vitamin K synthesized?
in the intestines by intestinal flora, therefore antibiotics can destroy normal flora and reduce production of vit K and its dependent factors