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64 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
dendritic cells
= 'professional APCs'
express MHC II and FcR on surface
main inducers of primary Ab response
skin dendritic cells = langerhans cells
plasma is made of
91.5% water, 7% proteins
-> 55% alb, 38% globins, 7% fib

also salts, lipids, enzymes, vitamins

*plasma is 55% of blood
antithrombin III
inactivates thrombin, IXa, Xa, and XIa

activated by binding to heparin
bradykinin leads to
increased vasodilation
increased permeability
increased pain

(via the kinin cascade)
neoplasms associated with tuberous sclerosis
cardiac rhabdomyoma
neoplasms associated with acanthosis nigricans
visceral malignancies of
-stomach, lung, breast, uterus
c-myc: burkitt's
erb-B2: breast, ovary, gastric
ras: colon
L-myc: lung
N-myc: neuroblastoma
ret: MEN types II and III
tumor suppressor genes
Rb: retinoblastoma, osteosarcoma
p53: Li-Fraumeni syndrome (etc)
p16: melanoma
APC: colon
WT1: wilms tumor
NF1, NF2: neurofibromatosis
DPC: pancreatic
DCC: colon
hepatocellular carcinomas
non-seminomas of the testis [yolk sac tumor]
hydatiform mole
gestational trophoblastic tumors
neural tumors
(tartrate resistant acid phos)
hairy cell leukemia
psammoma bodies
papillary (thyroid)
serous (ovary)
napthlene [aniline] dyes
cause bladder transitional cell carcinoma
lambert-eaton syndrome
=antibodies at presynaptic Ca channels at NMJ (looks like MG)

seen in thymomas, SCLCs
primary tumors that metastasize to brain
Lots of Bad Stuff Kills Glia

lung, breast, skin, kidney [RCC], GI

**50% of brain tumors are from metastases
metastasis to bone
PT Barnum Loves Kids

prostate, thyroid, testes, breast, lun, kidney

*breast and prostate = #1
diseases with target cells

Hgb-C, a-splenia, liver disease, thalassemias
burr cells
micro hypo anemias
IDA (low iron, high TIBC, low ferritin)
lead poisoning
sideroblastic anemia
macrocytic anemias
B12/folate deficiency
drugs that block DNA synthesis
-> sulfa drugs, AZT
marked reticulocytosis
normo normo anemias
acute hemorrhage
enzyme defects (G6PD, PK)
RBC membrane defects (HS)
BM disorders (aplastic, leukemia)
hemoglobinopathies (SCA)
autoimmune hemolytic anemia
ACD (LOW TIBC, high ferritin, high marrow mac iron storage)
alpha thalassemia
4 alpha globin genes
either a,a/a- (alpha thal 2)
or a,a/-- a-/a- (trait/ alpha thal 1)
a-/-- : HgbH disease
--/-- = Hgb Barts
autoimmune WARM hemolytic anemia
SLE, CLL, certain drugs

*all autoimmune hemolytic anemias are coombs positive
direct coombs
anti-IgG added to pts RBCs

will agglutinate if there is IgG attached to pts RBCs

(used to see if baby is suffering from mom's anti-Rh)
indirect coombs
normal RBCs added to pts serum

will agglutinate if pts serum contains anti-RBC IgG

(used to test mom for presence of anti-Rh antibodies)
autoimmune COLD hemolytic anemia
seen in recovery from M. pneumo
or in EBV
intravascular hemolysis due to membrane defect
(RBCs sensitive to complement lysis)

*high levels of urine hemosiderin
Bernard Soulier syndrome
defect of plt ADHESION

(low levels GP Ib)
Glanzmann's thrombasthenia
defect of plt AGGREGATION

(low GP IIb/IIIa)
Reed-sternberg cells (CD30, CD15)
localized group of nodes, contiguous spread
"B" Sx: low grade fever, night sweats, wt loss
mediastinal lymphadenopathy
50% of cases ass'd with EBV
good Px if low RS, high lymphs
biomodal age distribution
ass'd with HIV, immunosuppression
multiple, PERIPHERAL nods
extranodal involvement common
non-contiguous spread
non hyper-gammaglobluinemia
fewer constitutional Sx
peak = 20-40 yrs
nodular sclerosing HL
65-75% of HL
more lymphs than RS
excellent Px
collagen banding, lacunar cells
women > men: usually young adults
mixed cellularity
high levels both RS and lymphs
intermediate Px
25% of HL
lymphocyte predominant
6% of HL
much more lymphs than RS
<35 year old males
excellent Px
lymphocyte depleted
low levels of both types, but RS is higher compared to lymphs
older males w/disseminated HL
types of NHL
small lymphocytic
follicular (small, cleaved cell)
-> t(14:18), bcl2, most common
diffuse large cell (80% B, 20% mature T)
lymphoblastic (kids, immature T cells. VERY aggressive)
Burkitt's lymphoma
type of NHL
t(8:14), c-myc oncogene
'starry-sky' appearance
asociated w/EBC
jaw lesion in Africa [endemic]
usually B cells
auer rods
peroxidase positive
seen in APML (M3)
-> APML = t(15:17), treat with all-trans retinoic acid

*in APML treatment, can release auer rods and cause DIC
types of ALL
L1: small blasts w/scant cytoplasm. most common, best Px
L2: T cells, larger, more cytoplasm, worse Px, adults more
L3: cells look like Burkitts, and has same Tx
cell cycle specific chemo
MTX, 5-FU, 6-MP (antimetabolites)
vinca alkaloids
cell cycle-nonspecific
alkylating agents
antibiotics [doxorubicin, bleomycin, actinomycin]
immune mediated destruction of plts by the spleen
increased megakaryocytes in BM
ABSENCE of fragmented RBCs
->distinguish from microangiopathic anemia, TTP
increased bleeding time, decreased plt count
purpura, fever, renal failure, microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, microthrombi
high indirect bili, high LDH
schistocytes, renal dysfxn
marker of primitive lymphs
TDT [active when rearrangement of VDJ/TCR is occuring]
coumadin + clarithromycin
clarithromycin inhibts CYP450, so increased coumadin levels
leads to anticoagulation, hematuria
myeloproliferative disorders
myeloid metaplasia with myelofibrosis
-> hematopoesis moves to spleen or liver
ET (very rare tho)
thoracic duct drains
everything but the R arm, R side of the chest, R side of the head
[the right lymphatic duct drains these]
chronic congestive splenomegaly
usually ass'd with cirrhosis
spleen has thick capsule, many small scarred areas [Gamma-Gandy nodes]
histo = fibrosis with hemosiderin and calcium deposition
uterine leiomyomas lead to what type of anemia?
IDA [abundant blood loss during menstruation]
embryonic hematopoesis
3rd week in utero: yolk sac
2nd trimester: liver and spleen
3rd: central/peripheral skeleton
adulthood: axial skeleton
drainage of short saphenous vein (lateral dorsum of foot)
lymph nodes behind knee in the popliteal fossa
lead poisoning
colicky abd pain, headache, irritability, neuropathy
basophilic stippling, increased free RBC protoporphyrin
microcytic anemia
prognosis of follicular lymphoma
(overexpression of bcl-2)
slow, but relentless growth
allows long survival but treatment is ineffective b/c of low mitotic activity
small, cleaved cell lymphoma
=most common NHL t(14,18)

involves immunoglobulin chain site and bcl-2
burkitt's lymphoma types
common = t(8,14)
->myc on 8 and heavy Ig on 14
t(8,22): myc and lambda light Ig
t(2,8): myc and kappa light Ig
associated with t(11,14)
mantle cell lymphoma
multiple myeloma
small (not cleaved) NHL

->bcl-1 and heavy Ig
drugs causing aplastic anemia
NSAIDs, benzene, chloramphenicol

(the hypocellular BM fills w/fat)
weird coumadin side effect
necrosis of skin btwn 3-10 days after therapy begins
lesions can progress to bullae

mechanism is related to depletion of protein C
treatment of M3 AML can lead to

due to release of auer rods
tingible body macrophages
characteristic of benign reactive lymphadenitis

(lymph node is also tender, which suggests that it's benign)
primary Tx of CLL
chlorambucil(a nitrogen mustard)
the actual tumor cell in nodular sclerosing HL
is the LACUNAR cell

should also see broad collagen bands and few RS cells