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48 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
microcytic, hypochromic anemia
fe def
thalassemia (target cells)
pb poisoning, sideroblastic anemia
anemia of chronic dz
fe def
decreased serum iron, ferritin
increased TIBC
anemia of chronic dz
decreased TIBC
increased ferritin, storage iron in marrow macrophages
vit B12 and folate def are associated with
hypersegmeneted polys
vit B12 def
neurologic problems
macrocytic anemia
megaloblastic (vit B12, folate def)
drugs that block DNA synthesis
marked reticulocytosis
normocytic, normochromic anemia
acute hemorrhage, enzyme defects, RBC membrane defects, BM disorders, hemoglobinopathies, AI hemolytic anemia, ACD
basophilic stippling
associated with lead poisoning
denatured RNA because you inhibt breakdown
iron-protein complex (ferric acid, apoferritin)
cellular storage protein for fe
acute phase reactant
(increased in infection, inflamm)
protein that binds ferric molecules and transports them through the plasma
synthesized in the liver
t1/2 = 8 d
increased in fe def
direct coombs
immune mediated hemolytic anemia
+: hemolytic dz of newborn, DI AI hemolytic anemia, hemolytic transfusion reactions
indirect coombs
+: AB to forein blood (used to test for prior transfusion), screening for maternal antibodies to fetus blood
cold agglutinins
IgM; infections with myco pneumo, EBV mono, malignancies
hemolytic anemia when its cold out
warm agglutinins
IgG antibodies that react against RBC protein antigens at body temperature
seen in congenital immune abnl, virsuses (mono, HIV), SLE, malignancy (CLL, NHL)
aplastic anemia
pancytopenia: anemia, neutropenia, TCP
causes of aplastic anemia
radiation, benezene, chloramphenicol, alkylating agents, antimetabolites, viral agents (parvo B19, EBV, HIV), fanconi's anemia (DEB test), idiopathic
sxs of aplastic anemia
fatigue, malaise, pallor, purpura, mucosal bleeding, petechiae, infection
complications of sickle cell anemia
aplastic crisis (due to parvo B19), autosplenectomy, increased risk of encapsulated organism infection, salmonella osteomyelitis, painful crisis, splenic sequestration
tx for sickle cell anemia
hydroxyurea (increases fetal hb) and BMT
increased EPesis shows
crew cut on skull- due to marrow expansion
sickle cell heterozygotes
relatively malaria resistant
HbS mutation
single AA replacement in beta chain (substitution of normal glutamic acid with valine)
defect in different beta chain; patients have milder disease
alpha thal
alpha globin chain is underproduced; prevalent in Asia and africa
only one alpha
Hb barts
no alphas- hydrop fetalis and IU fetal death
beta thal
minor- heterozygote
major- no beta chain
common in mediterranian populations
beta thal major complications
severe anemia requiring blood transfusions; cardiac failure due to secondary hemochromatosis
marrow expansion
target cell, anisocytosis, poikilocytosis
AI anemia
extravasc hemoylsis
coombs positive
direct coombs
antiIg Ab added to pts RBCs agglutinate if RBCs are coated with Ig
indirect Coombs
normal RBCs added to pts serum agglutinate if sterum has antiRBC surface Ig
erythroblastosis fetalis
seen in newborn due to Rh or other blood antigen incompatibility- mothers antibodies attack fetal RBCs
hereditary spherocytosis
intrinsic, extravasc hemolysis due to spectrin or ankyrin defect
RBCs are small and round with no central pallor- less membrane- increased MCHC and RDW
removal of spleen will help
paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria
intravasc hemoylsis due to membrane defect-->increased sensitivity of RBCs to lytic activity of complement
microangiopathic anemia
intravasc hemolysis seen in DIC, TTP/HUS, SLE or malignant hypertension
Schistocytes (helmet cells) seen on blood smear
activation of coag cascade leading to microthrombi and global consumption of platelets, fibrin, coag factors
Lab findings DIC
increased PT, PTT, fibrin split products (D-dimers)
decreased platelet count
helmet cells and schistocytes on blood smear
antiplatelet AB, increased MKC
tx: steroids, IV Ig, splenectomy
schistocytes, increased LDH, neuro and renal symtpoms, fever, microangiopathic hemolytic anemia
immunosuppressive agents, heparin, H2 blockers
Platelet abnl
ITP, TTP, DIC, aplastic anemia, drugs
microhemorrhage: mucus membrane bleeding, epistaxis, petechiae, purpura, increased bleeding time
coag factor defects
hemophilia A/B, vWf disease
macrohemorrhage: hemarthroses, easy bruising, increased PT and/or PTT
vW dx
ristocetin test- platelets will aggregate
vit K def
increased PT, PTT
platelet defects
increased bleeding time
decr platelet count, increased bleeding time
increased PTT
vwF disase
increased bleeding time, increased PTT