Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/45

Click to flip

45 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What pathological effects does Phenytoin have?
Increases lymphocytes in the PB
Causes T-cell parafollicular hyperplasia
Inhibits intestinal conjugase (which turns folate polyglutamates into absorbable monoglutamates)
What pathological effects does lead have?
Denatures ferrochelatase (final step in heme synthesis, therefore an increase in protoporphyrin IX)
Denatures ALA dehydrase (which increases ALA causing nerve damage, cerebral edema and demyelination causing the child encephalopathy/adult nerve palsy)
Denatures ribonuclease (no ribosomal degradation causing basophilic stippling in PB RBCs)
Causes Fanconi's Syndrome (renal proximal tubule acidosis, phophaturia, aminoaciduria, glucosuria)
Eosinophilia occurs because...?
Allergic (asthma, eczema, pemphigus, etc)
Parasitic (trich, tapeworm, roundworm, schistomaniasis)
Other infections (scarlet fever, TB, leprosy)
Drugs (sulfonamides, PCN, digitalis, nitrofurantin)
Neoplastic (CML, Hodgkin's sometimes)
Causes oxidant stress in G6PD
Primaquine, chloroquine, dapsone, sulfonamides (and fava beans)
Causes decreased DNA synthesis
Phenothiazine, chloramphenicol, purine/pyrimidine antagonists (methotrexate, hydroxyurea, azithioprine, cytosine arabinosine, 6-mercaptopurine)
Symptoms of Polycythemia Vera
Pruritus with bathing, ruddy face, peptic ulcer (histamine increases gastric acid), gout (from breaking down new abundance of nucleated cells (purines become uric acid)), decrease in EPO, increase in both RBCs and PV
Plasma Dyscrasia: MGUS
Common monoclonal gammapathy
Small spike in IgG
Plasma cells are < 3% of marrow
No BJ proteins
Plasma Dyscrasia: Solitary Skeletal Plasmacytoma
Ribs/vertebra/pelvis
No plasmablasts in the marrow
No BJ proteins
75% become MM
Slight increase in M component
Plasma Dyscrasia: Extramedullary Plasmacytoma
Upper respiratory
Slight increase in M component
No malignant plasma cells in marrow
No BJ protein
Plasma Dyscrasia: Lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma (Waldenstrom's)
Neoplamic lymphaplasmatoid B cells
In old men
M spike (IgM)
BJ protein
No lytic bone lesions
General LAD (not found in MM)
Anemia
Involves marrow, spleen, liver
Increased viscosity in blood
Retinal hemmorhage, stroke, platelet aggregation defects
5 year survival
Plasma Dyscrasia: Heavy chain
No light chains, no BJ protein
alpha - infiltrates upper respiratory tract, jejeunum causing malabsorption
gamma - lymphoma
mu - lymphocytic leukemia, lymphoma
Precursor B-Cell ALL
TdT +
No Ig on surface
t(12;21) CBF-alpha & ETV6
In children
Pancytopenia
Aggressive
Precursor T-Cell ALL
Thymic precursor T cells
TdT +
TAL1 rearrangements
Adolescent males
Thymic mass
Aggressive
Burkitt's
GC B-cell
CD10+
t(8;14) c-myc & Ig
Also t(2;8), t(8;22)
Endemic (African) version found with latent EBV
Adolescents/young adults
Jaw/Extranodal/Abdominal mass
Aggressive
Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma
GC or post GC B-cell
RAR of BCL6
t(14;18) in some
cREL amplified in some
In adults mostly
Rapid growing mass, some extranodal involvement
Aggressive
Symptoms of Polycythemia Vera
Pruritus with bathing, ruddy face, peptic ulcer (histamine increases gastric acid), gout (from breaking down new abundance of nucleated cells (purines become uric acid)), decrease in EPO, increase in both RBCs and PV
Plasma Dyscrasia: MGUS
Common monoclonal gammapathy
Small spike in IgG
Plasma cells are < 3% of marrow
No BJ proteins
Plasma Dyscrasia: Solitary Skeletal Plasmacytoma
Ribs/vertebra/pelvis
No plasmablasts in the marrow
No BJ proteins
75% become MM
Slight increase in M component
Plasma Dyscrasia: Extramedullary Plasmacytoma
Upper respiratory
Slight increase in M component
No malignant plasma cells in marrow
No BJ protein
Plasma Dyscrasia: Lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma (Waldenstrom's)
Neoplamic lymphaplasmatoid B cells
In old men
M spike (IgM)
BJ protein
No lytic bone lesions
General LAD (not found in MM)
Anemia
Involves marrow, spleen, liver
Increased viscosity in blood
Retinal hemmorhage, stroke, platelet aggregation defects
5 year survival
Hairy Cell
Post GC memory B-cell
Older men
Pancytopenia
Splenomegaly
Indolent
Adult T-Cell leukemia/lymphoma
Helper T-cell with CD25 (IL-2 receptor)
HTLV-1 in tumor cells
Cutaneous lesions, marrow involvement
Hypercalcemia
Japanese/W African/Caribbean
Aggressive
Anaplastic large T-Cell
CTL's
RAR in ALK
Children/young adults with lymph node/soft tissue disease
Aggressive
Extranodal NK/T-cell Lymphoma
NK or CTL (rarely)
EBV-associated
destructive extranodal mass, often sinonasal with hemophagotic function
Aggressive
Mycosis Fungoides/Sezary
Helper T-cell
Adult with cutaneous patches/general erythema
Indolent
T-cell Granular Lymphocytic Leukemia
CD8 T-cells/NK types
Adult with splenomegaly, neutropenia, anemia
Some with autoimmune disease
Extranodal marginal zone lymphoma
Post GC memory B-cell
trisomy 18, t(11;18), t(1;14)
Extranodal sites
Adults with chronic inflammatory disease
Usually stays local
Indolent
Follicular lymphoma
GC B-cells with CD10, BCL-2 and BCL-6
t(14;18) in BCL-2
Old people
General LAD
Marrow involved
Indolent
Mantle Cell Lymphoma
Naive B-cells with cyclinD1 and CD5
t(11;14) with BCL1 (cyclinD1) and IgH
Old men with disseminated disese
Moderately aggressive
Multiple Myeloma
Plasma cells from post GC B-cells
RAR IgH
Old people
Lytic bone lesions
Hypercalcemia
Renal failure
Primary amyloidosis
Small lymphocytic lymphoma/CLL
Naive B-cell/post GC memory B-cell with CD5
Trisomy 12, deletions at 11q, 13q, 17p
Old people
Marrow, spleen, liver, lymph node disease
PB involved (autoimmune hemolysis/thrombocytopenia)
Indolent
T-cell associated Ag's
CD1: cortical thymocytes/Langerhan's histiocytes
CD3: thymocytes/peripheral T-cells
CD4: peripheral helper T-cells/thymocytes
CD5: T-cells, some B-cells
CD8: CTL/thymocytes/some NK cells
NK cell associated Ag's
CD16: NK and granulocytes
CD56: NK and some T-cells
B-cell associated Ag's
CD10=CALLA: marrow pre-B, GC B-cell
CD19: marrow pre-B, mature B-cells, not plasma cells
CD20: marrow pre-B after CD19, mature B-cells, not plasma cells
CD21: EBV receptor, on mature B-cells, follicular dendritic cells
CD23: activated mature B-cells
CD79a: marrow pre-B and mature B-cells
Monocyte/macrophage associated Ag's
CD11c: monocytes, macrophages and granulocytes (Hairy cell leukemia)
CD13: monocytes and granulocytes
CD14: monocytes
CD15: granulocytes (RS cells and variants (Hodgkin's))
CD33: monocytes and myeloid progenitors
CD64: mature myeloids
Random other Ag Markers
CD34: Primary stem progenitor
CD30: Activated B, T and monocytes (RS cells and variants (Hodgkin's))
CD45: All leukocytes
Hodgkin's: Lymphocyte depletion
GC and Post GC B-cell
Over 70% EBV associated
Elderly
Many HIV+
Moderately aggressive
Hodgkin's: Lymphocyte rich
GC and post GC B-cell
40% EBV associated
More in males
Moderately aggressive
Hodgkin's: Nodular Schlerosing
GC and post GC B-cell
Rarely EBV related
Lacunar cells
Mediastinal mass in females
Moderately aggressive
Hodgkin's: Lymphocyte predominant
GC B-cells
Not EBV associated
L&H variant cells
Young-middle age men
Cervical/axillary LAD
Indolent
Hodgkin's: Mixed-cellularity
Post GC B-cells
70% EBV related
More in men
LAD
Many RS cells
Moderately aggressive
Basophilia in...
Polycythemia Vera
Myeloproliferative reactions
EMH
Hypothyroidism
Dohle bodies
Inclusions of RER from early maturational stages
Seen in myeloid left shifts
Often seen with toxic granulations
May-Hegglin Anomaly
Basophilic inclusions (altered RNA)
Giant platelets
Thrombocytopenia
Benign
Often associated with bleeding
Alder-Reilly Anomaly
Associated with muccopolysaccharidosis
Azurophilic granules (that look like toxic granulations)
In all leukocytes