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50 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Describe the toxicity of aspirin
gastric ulceration, bleeding, hyperventilation (OD), Reye's syndrome, tinnitus (CN VIII)
Describe the toxicity of clopidogrel/ticlopidine
Neutropenia (ticlopidine)
What is the MOA of methotrexate?
folic acid analog that inhibits dihydrofolate reductase (part of pyrimidine synthesis)
Name 5 side effects of MTX
myelosuppression, macrovesicular fatty change in liver, mucositis, teratogenic, neurotoxicity
How can you reverse MTX myelosuppression?
Give leucovorin which is N5 formyl THF which can be converted to THF to rescue DNA synthesis
What is the mechanism of action of 5-FU?
Pyrimidine analog that inhibits thymidylate synthase; blocks pyrimidine synthesis (synergy with MTX)
How can you "rescue" 5-FU OD?
with thymidine
Name 2 side effects of 5-FU
myelosuppression, photosensitivity
What is the MOA of 6-MP?
It's a purine analog that blocks de novo purine synthesis- trying to find out where exactly it works
Side effects of 6MP?
bone marrow, GI, liver
What enzyme metabolizes 6MP?
What enzyme activates 6MP?
What is the MOA of dactinomycin?
intercalates in DNA and inhibits RNA pol, DNA pol, and may cause strand breaks due to inhibition of DNA topoisomerase II
What (general) tumors is dactinomycin used for?
tumors of childhood like Wilms' tumor, Ewing's sarcoma, and rhabdomyosarcoma
Toxicity of dactinomycin?
What is the mechanism of action of doxorubicin/daunorubicin?
Intercalates in DNA and inhibits rna pol, dna pol, and DNA topo II (possibly causing dbl stranded breaks) + generates free radicals --> single stranded breaks as well
3 toxicities of doxo/daunorubicin?
cardio, myelosuppression, and alopecia
What is the MOA of bleomycin?
Induces free radical formation which causes breaks in DNA strands (single stranded)
Side effects of bleomycin (2)
pulmonary fibrosis, skin changes (bc those tissues can't de-activate bleomycin)

*Note: minimal myelosuppression
What is the MOA of etoposide (VP16) and teniposide?
They inhibit DNA topoisomerase II, leading to double stranded dna breaks
Toxicity of etoposide/teniposide?
myelosuppression, GI irritation, alopecia
Type of drug?
alkylating agent
Type of drug?
alkylating agent
nitrosoureas, type of drug?
alkylating agent
Type of drug?
alkylating agent
Type of drug?
alkylating agent
Type of drug?
alkylating agent
Type of drug?
alkylating agent
Name two main toxicities of cyclophosphamide/ifosfamide
1) myelosuppression
2) hemorrhagic cystitis
Name main toxicity of nitrosoureas
CNS toxicity (dizziness/ataxia)

*Crosses BBB so used for brain tumors
Name main toxicities (2) of busulfan
pulmonary fibrosis, hyperpigmentation
What is the mechanism of action of vincristine/vinblastine?
Bind to tubulin during M phase and block polymerization of microtubules so mitotic spindle can't form
What are the side effects of vincristine?
neurotoxicity, paralytic ileus
What are the side effects of vinblastine?
vinblastine BLASTS the bone marrow (suppression)
What is the MOA of paclitaxel and other taxols?
hyperstabilizes polymerized microtubules in M phase so mitotic spindle can't break down
What are the side effects of paclitaxel and other taxols?
myelosuppression, hypersensitivity
What's the MOA of cisplatin/carboplatin?
cross-link DNA
What are the side effects of cisplatin/carboplatin?
nephrotoxicity and acoustic nerve damage
How can you prevent nephrotoxicity from cisplatin/carboplatin?
Give amifostine which is a free radical scavenger
What is the mechanism of action of hydroxyurea?
inhibits ribonucleotide reductase
Toxicity of hydroxyurea?
bone marrow suppression, GI upset
Why is prednisone used to treat cancer?
bc it can trigger apoptosis
What is the MOA of tamoxifen and raloxifene?
estrogen receptor antagonists in breast and agonist in bone
What two things can you use tamoxifen/raloxifene for?
To treat estrogen receptor positive breast cancer or to prevent osteoporosis
Which SERM has a risk for endometrial carcinoma and why?
tamoxifen - may increase risk of endometrial cancer via partial agonist effects
What is the MOA of trastuzumab (aka herceptin)
monoclonal Ab against HER-2 (aka erb-B2); helps kill cancer cells that over-express HER-2
What is the toxicity of trastuzumab?
What is the MOA of imatinib?
Philadelphia chromosome bcr-abl tyrosine kinase inhibitor
What is the main side effect of imatinib?
fluid retention
What is the MOA of rituximab?
Anti-CD20 ab (used for B cell neoplasms)