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35 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
components of blood?
formed elements of cells and platelets. Fluid intercellular material like plasma
define components of plasma.
90% water, 9% organic compounds like albumen, fibrinogen, lipoproteins, vitamins, hormones, plus other substances. 1% are inorganic salts
define serum.
fluid remaining after fibrinogen and other clotting factors have been removed from plasma
define hematocrit and give % in men and women.
volume of % packed erythrocytes per unit volume of blood. Men are 40 to 50%. Female are 35 to 45%. Note it is greatest in venous blood and decreases during pregnancy
list cells in blood from most abundant to least.
RBC, platelets, PMNs, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinos, basophils
describe the shape (and importance of it), diameter, and life span of RBCs
biconcave disk (provides more cell area than a sphere which is important for gas exchange and allows them to deform more easily to enter capillaries), 7.5 micrometers, 120 day life span and before they die they become stiff and are destroyed by spleen
aspects of reticulocytes?
AKA shift cells. They are RBCs right after extrusion of nucleus, retain few ribosomes. Released from marrow as these. Normal concentration in blood is 1%. Mature in 24 hours.
Rh factor?
antigen that may or may not be present on the red blood cell surface
what are the 2 groups of leukocytes and the members of each group.
granulocytes include neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils. Agranulocytes include monocytes, lymphocytes, pleuripotential stem cells, NK cells, and null cells
describe the neutrophil in terms of morphology, function, granule types.
usually 3 lobed nucleus. Destroy bacs is main function. 4 types of granules: azurophilic (antimicrobial agents plus other substances), specefic (lysozymes, antimicrobial agents plus others), tertiary (enzymes that degrade tissue to allow passage), secretory (reservoir of membrane associated receptors).
describe the eosinophil in terms of function, morphology and granules.
bilobed nucleus that sunctions in destruction of parasites and Ag-Ab complexes. Granules stain pnk and contain major basic protein used in destruction of parasites and other substances.
describe basophils.
dark blue granules which may obscure nucleus, function is to mediate inflammation like mast cells - hypersensitivity reactions. Granules contain heparin, histamine, eosinophil chemotactic factor, peroxidase, chondroitin sulphate, proteoglycans.
where are T cells programmed? B cells?
thymus, bone marrow
describe monocytes in terms of what they become.
macrophages when they move into tissues becoming antigen presenting cells. Kupfer cells in liver, osteoclasts of bone, langerhancs cells of skin, microglia of CNS, multinuclear giant cells, alveolar macs, and APCs of lymphoid tissue
describe all the aspects of platelets.
function in blood clotting (fragments of megakaryotcytes). Consist of a hyalomere (outer portion containing microtubules, actin and myosin) and a granulomere (inner portion containing granules - fibrinogen, thromboplastin, factors 5 and 7, histamine, serotonin, plus other stuff).
what are the two types of bone marrow and its components?
white is all fat. Red is active (only 70% fat), consists of stroma cells (macs, reticular cells, fibroblasts, and reticular fibers), sinusoids, and hematopoietic cells
describe the stages in hematopoiesis in general.
pleuripotential hematopoietic stemm cells (PHSCs) give rise to all blood cells via 2 cell lines. Multipotential stem cells consist of the 2 cell lines - colony forming units of the spleen (CFU-S) which give rise to all blood cells except lymphocytes and then the colony forming units of the lymphocytes (CFU-Ly). CFU's make progenitor cells (unipotenital stem cells) that are committed to form a single cell type except line to neutrophils (microphages) and monocytes (macrophages). then precursor cells which you can recognize under the light microscope. finally mature cells
describe erythrocyte hematopoiesis
1. proerythroblast 2. is basophilic erythroblast (cytoplasm filled with ribosome) 3. polychromatophilic erythroblast (cytoplasm contains ribosomes and Hb). 4. orthochromatic erythroblast (cytoplasm filled with Hb and a few ribosomes). 5. reticulocytes (nucleus gone, few ribosomes, stage where RBC is released to the blood stream). 6. mature RBCs
describe hematopoeisis of neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils.
1. myeloblasts (no granules) 2. promyelocyte (only azurophilic granules) 3. myelocyte (specefic granules for each type granulocyte present in cytoplasm). 4. metamyelocyte (nucleus is starting to indent, for some neutrophils this stage includes stab AKA band cells - C shaped nucleus). 5. mature cells
describe monocyte hematopoesis
PHSC to CFU-S to CFU NM (neutro and monocytes - they come from the same precursor cell). Enters peripheral circulation which they leave after a few days to enter tissue and become macrophages etc.
describe lymphocyte hematopoesis
PHSC to CFU-Ly to CFU-LyT or CFU-LyB. CFU-LyT migrate to the thymus where they become immunocompetent. In mammals, CFU B become immunocompetent in the bone marrow.
describe platelet hematopoesis
PHSC to CFU-S to CFU-Meg (CFU MK) to promegakaryoblasts to megakaryoblasts to megakaryocyte (during development, these cells undergo endomitosis and become polyploid up to 64N). Plasmalemma of megakaryocytes invade cytoplasm forming platelet demarcation channels. These cells are located next to sinusoids into which they extend their processes. the cytoplasm fragments along the platelet demarcation channels forming platelets
lab procedures in anemia?
examine peripheral smear, red cell count, hemoglobin, and hematocrit, red cell indices, red cell distribution width, reticulocyte count, leukocyte and platelet counts
what is MCV?
mean cell (corpuscular) volume: measurement of red cell size (in cubic micrometer or femtoliters). Calculated from Hct and RBC count
what is MCH.
Mean cell hemoglobin: red cell Hb concentration (in picograms). Calculated from Hct and RBC count
what is the MCHC?
mean cell Hb concentration (g/dL). Represents the Hb concentration of the average cell.
What is the RDW?
red cell distribution width. Determines the distribution of the different sizes of RBCs in a blood film
anemia is defined as…
decrease in erythrocytes or decrease in hematocrit. And/or decrease in amount of Hb.
define erythrocytosis or polycythemia.
an increase in the number of erythrocytes
define hypochromic
abnormally small amount of hemoglobin present in the cell
define macrocytes
erythrocytes with a diameter over 9 micrometers
define microcytes
RBCs with a diameter less than 6 micrometers
define anisocytosis
high % of RBCs vary greatly in size
define poikilocytosis
abnormal variation in shape of RBC
what is the cause and what are the signs of sickle cell.
signs are hypoxia, increased bilirubin levels, low RBC count, and capillary stasis as the caps are blocked by inflexible RBCs (result in pain crisis). RBCs are non pliable and fragile, easily destroyed, in particular by the spleen. Result of point mutation in beta chains (substitute valine for glutamate)