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30 Cards in this Set

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What RBCs give to someone without knowing their blood type?
Type O
What plasma would you give someone without knowing their blood type?
AB
Can O negative blood ypes receive O positive blood?
no
What are the 4 modifications of PRBCs?
1) Leukoreduction (filtrate out WBCs)
2) washing (rare -remove plasma)
3) Irradiation (crosslink DNA of WBCs)
4) freezing (very rare - people w/ special blood antigens)
What are 3 situations in which you'd give someone PRBCs?
1) acute blood loss: Blood loss > 15% blood volume, drop in systolic BP > 20%, pulse >100bpm

2) chronic asymptomatic anemia, probably due to renal failure: also give Epo

3) anemia prior to anesthesia or elective surgery with Hct <24%
By how much does 1 unit of PRBC increase Hct?
3%
If someone is losing blood acutely, what would you do?
Replace lost blood volume (with ringers and osmotic solution) and transfuse RBC. Don't transfuse FFP, whole blood, or order coag tests
What happens if there is an ABO incompatibility
actue hemolytic transfusion reaction, which can cause DIC and acute tubular necrosis
What are the main causes of secondary hemostasis?
1) liver disorder - not making fibrinogen

2) DIC - fibrinogen used up

3) genetic coag factor deficiencies - Hemophilia A and B
Why is leukoreduction performed?
WBCs are not viable ex vivo and can contaminate blood. They can cause a number of complications

1) febrile transfusion reaction
2) alloimmunization to HLA - delayed actue hemolytic reaction with formation of antibodies to blood donation
3) CMV and HTLV1 are carried in lymphocytes
4) Overwhelm immune system, not allowing mmune system to effectively fight post-op reacion infections and tumor metastases
Why is washing performed?
Very rarely necessary and removes residual plasma
What are 2 patient populations that need PRBC washing?
Patients with history of anaphylactic reaction or IgA deficiencies
Why is Gamma-irradiation performed?
Prevent GVHD (graft verses host disease), where donor WBCs attack host cells. It crosslinks all DNA in leftover WBC, but DN kill viruses or affect RBCs (anuclear).

GVHD is 100% fatal and attacks BM.
What are 2 patients populations that need gamma-irradiation?
1) immuunosupressed
2) Receiving blood from family members
What are 2 complications of irradiation
1) leaky Na/K pump on RBC, causing extracellular K leak and bad for cardiac arrest patients - solution is to wash the blood

2) The shelf life of blood is decreased from 42 weeks to 28 days.
How much prior to the blood transfusion is gamma-irradiation performed?
Right before, like 3 minutes before.
Why is blood frozen?
This procedure is rarely done bc it's so expensive. People with multiple ntigens on their RBCs or are negative for high-incidence antigens need it.
When a patient is losing whole blood, what do you need to replace?
RBCs, plasma (frozen at -18C), platelets (AB)
What's in FFP?
90% water, protein, fibrinoen, coag factors.
What transfusion products need to be ABO compatible?
RBC, FFP, cryoprecipitate, platelets
Why is washing performed?
Very rarely necessary and removes residual plasma
What are 2 patient populations that need PRBC washing?
Patients with history of anaphylactic reaction or IgA deficiencies
Why is Gamma-irradiation performed?
Prevent GVHD (graft verses host disease), where donor WBCs attack host cells. It crosslinks all DNA in leftover WBC, but DN kill viruses or affect RBCs (anuclear).

GVHD is 100% fatal and attacks BM.
What are 2 patients populations that need gamma-irradiation?
1) immuunosupressed
2) Receiving blood from family members
What are 2 complications of irradiation
1) leaky Na/K pump on RBC, causing extracellular K leak and bad for cardiac arrest patients - solution is to wash the blood

2) The shelf life of blood is decreased from 42 weeks to 28 days.
How much prior to the blood transfusion is gamma-irradiation performed?
Right before, like 3 minutes before.
Why is blood frozen?
This procedure is rarely done bc it's so expensive. People with multiple ntigens on their RBCs or are negative for high-incidence antigens need it.
When a patient is losing whole blood, what do you need to replace?
RBCs, plasma (frozen at -18C), platelets (AB)
What's in FFP?
90% water, protein, fibrinoen, coag factors.
What transfusion products need to be ABO compatible?
RBC, FFP, cryoprecipitate, platelets