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81 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
hematology is
the study of the cellular elements of blood
the cellular elements in blood are
rbcs or erythrocytes
wbc, or leukocytes
platelets, or thrombocytes
another name for rbc is
erythrocyte
another name for wbc
leukocyte
another name for platelet is
thrombocyte
cbc are done in what colored tube
purple
the majority of wbc in blood are
neutrophils
once spun down, these are the heaviest, found at the bottom of the tube
rbc
once spun down, leukocytes and platelets are found above the rbcs in the
buffy coat
once spun down, plasma is found
above the buffy coat
are plasma and serum the same?
no
the process by which blood is maintained fluid within the vessel walls and the ability to prevent excessive blood loss upon injury
hemostasis
why when you cut yourself you do not bleed to death
hemostasis
what are the processes that stop you from bleeding?
vasoconstriction, platelet plug formation, fibrin then cements the plugs to eachother, fibrinolysis then removes the plug
narrowing of the blood vessels, so that you have less blood flow
vasoconstriction
binds platelets to eachother
fibrin
the processes of removing the fibrin cement holding the platelets to eachother
fibrinolysis
the megakaryocytic series consists of how many stages?
3 stages
where are rbc's made?
bone marrow
the most immature cell in the megakaryocytic series is
the megakaryoblast
the term that represents the most immature cell of any series is
blast
blasts consist of
nucleus and cytoplasm
what makes the mekakaryocytic series different from any other series?
as the series proceeds, you go from small cells to larger cells
the final stage of the megakaryocytic cell series is
the megakaryocyte
how many microns is the megakaryblast in diameter?
50
promegakaryocyte is how many microns in diameter?
80
the cell in the bone marrow that is produced by this series?
megakaryocyte
the largest cell in the bone marrow is?
the megakaryocyte
how long does it take to go from from producing megakaryblast to having platelets enter circulation?
5 days
these plaetelets then go into circulation, and circulate for how many days, unless needed first?
8-10 days
how many platelets does one megakaryocyte produce?
2k-7k platelets
how many platelets are in circulation, on average?
150k-450k platelets
what percentage of platelets are actually in circulation?
80% of platelets
if 80% of platelets are circulating, where are the other 20%?
pooled in the spleen
how many zones are there in a platelet?
3
what is the first zone of the platelet?
the peripheral zone
what is the difference between adhersion and aggregation?
aggregation is platelet to platelet, adhesion is to something other than self
why do we want adhesion, when talking about platelets?
so the platelets bind to the vessel wall
the outermost zone is the
exterior coat, the outer most coat of the platelet
the outer most part of the platelet, that is very smooth, but receptors will come to its surface when you are cut.
exterior coat
what is the purpose of the receptor IIbIIIa ?
binds to fibrinogen
receptors allow platelets to
aggregate
IbIX is the
vonwilirims receptor
under the external coat is the
unit membrane
where is pfIII (platelet factor 3) made?
in the unit membrane
what membrane is below the unit membrane?
the subunit membrane
wwhat is the subunit membrane made of?
submembrane fillaments
submembrane filiments allow the platelet
to form itself into any form that it needs to , to give it a ragged edge when it wants to adhere to crooked structures.
the canal system that allows transport from the middle to the external membrane?
the canicular system
the zone where the microtubule system of the platelets are, it is what gives structure to the platelet, it is involved in support and contraction.
the sol gel zone
the zone with the dense bodies and alpha granules
the organell zone
the important chemical we should know that is in the dense bodies
ADP
ADP is a
potent aggretory agent
the one chemical we should know of in the alpha granules
B thromboglobulin
inhibits prostacyclin
B thromboglobulin
when platelets aggregate, the organelles...
release their contient. Alpha granuls and dense bodies release B thrombogobulin and ADP.
the organelles release their chemicals through the...
canicular system
the release 1 reaction is
when dense bodies release their chemicals, of importance ADP
the release 2 reaction is
when alpha granules release their contents, of importance Beta thromboglobulin
prostocyclin does what
inhibits aggregation of platelets
prostocyclin is made when
the vessel wall is normal
what is the reaction that occurs on the surface when ADP is released?
the membrane phospholipds, via phospholipase, creats arachidonic acid, which creats prostaglandin endoperoxides via cyclooxygenase, prostaglandin endoperoxides then creates thromboxane via thrbomboxane synthetase
the reaction on the surfaces when ADP is released goes from:
membrane phospholipid to arachidonic acid, to prostaglandin endoperoxide to thromboxane
in platelets phospholipase
creats arachidonic acid from membrane phospholipids
in platelets, cyclooxygenase
creates prostaglandin endoperoxides from arachidonic acid
thromboxanesynthetase creates
thromboxane from prostaglandin endoperoxide
so adp causes the formation of what chemicals, which leads to aggregation
thromboxane
refering to platelets, thromboxane is a
even more potent platelet aggretory element than ADP
asprin keeps platelets from aggregating by
stoping cyclooxygenase
in platelets, ADP is activated by the
contortions that happen with the cut
how many ingredients does it take to make fibrin
12 factors
factor 1 common name, site of synthesis, vit k depdency?
firbnogen, liver, no
factor 2
prothromin, liver, yes
factor 3
thromboplastin/tissue factor, vessel wall, no
factor 4
calcium, bone, no
factor 5
labile factor, liver, no
factor 7
stable factor, liver, no
factor 8
antihemophilic factor A, produced in 2 parts, the VIIIvwF in the endothelium and the VIIIc made in the liver
which factors are vitamin k dependent
2 (prothrombin), 7 (stable factor), 9 (christmas factor), 10 (stuart power),
which factors are not synthesized in the liver?
factor 3 (thromboblastin;vessel wall), factor 4 (caclium;bone), 8 is partially (VIIIC)
when the tissue is cut, what is released from the vessel wall
factor 3, thrombblastin is released