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15 Cards in this Set

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A. What is the normal erythrocyte concentration in the blood?

B. What is the normal hematocrit?
A. Women: 3.3-5.5 E6/mm3
Men: 4.3-5.9 E6/mm3

B. Women: 36-46%
Men: 41-53%
Describe the genetic mutation that leads to the altered hemoglobin molecule responsible for sickle cell anemia.
Single base pair substitution resulting in 6. E -> 6. V on beta subunit of Hb molecule
How are the constituent molecules of RBCs "recycled" upon RBC degradation?
1. Macrophages in spleen, liver, and bone marrow engulf and digest RBCs
2. Iron carried by transferrin to combine in tissues with apoferritin -> ferritin
3. Heme -> biliverdin -> bilirubin, which is secreted with bile salts
Name the three types of granulocytes.
neutrophils
eosinophils
basophils
Describe neutrophils.
- the primary cells of the acute inflammatory response
- also known as PMNs due to their multi-lobed nuclei
- contain lysozomes (azurophilic granules) with hydrolytic enzymes for bacterial destruction
- these phagocytes move by chemotaxis to bacterial targets
- 54-62% of all leukocytes
Describe eosinophils.
- prominent in allergic rxns, parasitic infxns
- bilobed nuclei and acidophilic granules
- granules contain hydrolytic enzymes, peroxidase
- 1-3% of leukocytes
Describe basophils.
- present in certain immune rxns
- contain large spheroid granules of proteoglycans, heparin and histamine
- also release vasoactive amines and leukotrienes LTC4, LTD4, LTE4
Name the two classes of agranulocytes.
lymphocytes
monocytes
Describe lymphocytes.
- enter blood from lymphatic tissues
- classified as T or B lymphocytes
- circular dark-stained nuclei, scanty blue cytoplasm
- 25-33% of all leukocytes
Describe T lymphocytes.
- principal effectors of cell-mediated immunity
- precursors produced in bone marrow, differentiate in thymus
- also fxn as helper and suppressor cells by modulating response of B cells, plasma cells, macrophages, and other T lymphocytes
Describe B lymphocytes.
- principal mediators of humoral immunity through their production of antibodies [ab]
- produced, differentiate in bone marrow (and ?GALT)
- differentiate into ab-producing plasma cells
- after 2nd antigen exposure, differentiate into memory cells, special plasma cells
Describe monocytes.
- largest of peripheral blood cells at ~2x RBC diameter
- kidney-shaped nuclei, fine azurophilic granules
- precursors of tissue macrophages (histiocytes), osteoclasts, alveolar macrophages, Kupffer cells (of liver)
- 3-7% of all leukocytes
Describe platelets.
- small, anuclear, membrane-bound fragments of megakaryocyte cytoplasm (in bone marrow)
- short life span (~10 days)
- aggregate to plug rupture sites in vessels by platelet-platelet interactions
- initiate clotting cascade to ultimately create fibrin
Name some proteins contained in blood plasma.
albumin (major factor of osmotic pressure)
globulins (alpha, beta, gamma)
fibrinogen
What is the difference between plasma and serum?
Serum lacks clotting factors; it is the clear yellow fluid separated from the coagulum during blood clotting