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66 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
The pH of blood is
The normal temperature of blood is
The specific gravity of blood is
The functional role of the nucleus is
to control and direct the development, function and division of the cell
The functional role of the cytoplasm
soluble portion of the cell where most of the cell's metabolic reactions take place
The functional role of the nucleolus is
site for sythesis of ribosomal RNA
The functional role of the Golgi body is
site for concentration and secretion of granuals and the separation of carbohydrate components into other cellular components
The functional role of endoplasmic reticulum, both smooth and rough
interconnects cavietes of cell
Smooth: agranular site for synthesis of lipids
Rough: contains ribosomes or granules associated with protein production
The functional role of ribosomes
active protein synthesis, in RBC site of hemoglobin synthesis
The functional role of mitochondria
main site of energy production for the cell
The functional role of lysosomes
contain hydrolitci enzymes used in phagocytosis. capable of breakdown of cell walls
The fucntional role of microfilaments
components of cytoplasmic cytoskeleton that allow plasma membrane to contact and pinch for phagocytosis
The functional role of microtubules
associated with mitotic spindle. Used for self-assembly of microfilaments to provide cell shape
The functional role of the centriole
serve as point of insertion of spindle fibers during cell division
densely packed chromatin near histone
uncoiled DNA strands within the nucleus
highly pleomorphic and bizarre cytologic features associated with malignant tumors
decrease in number and size of cless that can lead to decrease in organ size or tissue mass
abnormal cytologic features and cellular organization that is a premalignant change
increase in number of cells
increase in size of the cell that can lead to increase in organ or tissue size
change from one adult cell type to another
formation, development, and specialization of all functional blood cells
Location for hematopoesis in first trimester
yolk sac
cellularity of bone marrow
bone region with highest % of bone marrow
normal ranges for cells in bone marrow
myeloid 60-70%
Erythroid 20%
Lymphocyte 10-15%
Plasma cells 2%
normal myeloid to erythroid ratio in normal bone marrow
six properties of totipotential stem cell
1)capable of unlimited self renewal
2) capable of unlimited differentiation
3) low mitotic rate
4)highly resistant to chemotherapy
5) present in small numbers
6)reside primarily in marrow
major differences between totipotential and multipotential stem cells
multipotential stem cells are capable of extended self renewal and extended differentiation as opposed to the unlimited potential of totipotential cells
Progenitor cells
Differentiate into precursor cells, are responsive to hematopoietic growth factors and express differentiation antigens
Effector cells
red cells, neutrophils, monocytes, lymphocytes, platelets
granulocyte maturation pathway from precursor to mature cell
myeloblast, promyelocyte, myelocyte, metamyelocyte, band, neutrophil
red blood cell maturation pathway from precursor to mature cell
rubriblast, prorubricyte, rubricyte, metarubricyte, reticulocyte, erythrocyte
creation of RBCs for oxygen and waste transport
function of GM-CSF
stimulate production of granulocytes and monocytes
function of G-CSF
primarily, but not exclusively, stimulates production of granulocytes
stem cell factor
stimulate totipotential, pluripotential stem cells to enter differentiation pathway
mediate complex communications between classes of WBCs and WBC effect on hematopoeisis
extramedullary hematopoietic tissues
lymph nodes, thymus, lungs, gastrointestinal, liver, urinary tract, reproductive organs
dynamic equilibrium of bone marrow and peripheral blood cells
at any one time 50% of granulocytes are in blood and 50% in storage, RBCs 100% in blood and platelets 70% blood 30% storage. Can be changed in times of need
maturation time from Rubriblast to Erythrocyte
3-5 days
14-19 μm
N:C= 4:1
12-17 μm
N:C= 4:1
12-15 μm
N:C= 4:1
8-12 μm
N:C= 1:1
7-10 μm
N:C= N/A
6-8 μm
integral protein
transverse the membrane, made up of glycophorin, contains blood group antigens
peripheral proteins
part of cytoskeleton, under the membrane, made up of spectrin and others
Names and examples of integral and peripheral proteins
integral: glycophorin A,B,C
peripheral: spectrin, band 4/1, Actin, Ankyrin
phospholipid bilayer of RBC membrane
~40% lipid
~50% protein
~10% carbohydrate
3 basic functions of RBC membrane
1) separate intracellular from extracellular
2) allow nutrient and ion passage selectively in and out of cell
3) allow cell to deform when required
Role of carbohydrates and proteins in RBC membrane
carbohydrates: associated with lipids and proteins mostly on outside of cell.
proteins: peripheral and integral proteins form cytoskeleton, carry antigens, are anchoring sites depending on location
phospholipids associated with the RBC membrane
phosphatidyl choline: probably control point in lipid renewal pathway
phosphatidyl ethanolamine, serine: on outside of cell cascade is activated as well as extravascular hemolysis
pathological conditions associated with too much cholesterol on the RBC membrane
liver disease, lipid disorders, chronic hemolitic anemia
role of cholesterol in RBC membrane
affects survace area, regulates membrane fluidity and permeability, responsible for passive cation permeability of membrane
functions of RBC membrane proteins: integral
integral proteins: ion channels, membrane pumps, structural support in association with peripheral proteins. connect outer surface and cytoplasm. Glycophorin A, B, C and band 3
intracellular to extracellular ratios of Na, K, Ca, MG
Na 5.4-7 135-145
K 98-106 3.6-5.0
Ca .0059-.019 21-26.5
Mg 3.06 .65-1.05
functions of RBC membrane proteins: peripheral
provide structural support and fluidity to RBC membrane. Spectrin, Actin, Ankyrin, band 4.1 &4.2, Band 6, Adducin
major functions of Embden-Meyerhof pathway
maintain adequate energy level in form of ATP, drives cation pumps that maintain RBC structure and function
major functions of Hexose Monophosphate Shunt
prevent injury from oxidative factors, provides reducing power to protect Hgb & RBC membrane from oxidant injury
major function of Methemoglobin Reductase pathway
maintain Hgb in reduced state
Major fucntion of Rapapart-Leubering Pathway
production of 2,3 diphosphoglycerate
components of hemoglobin
protein globin (2 dimers of 2 different polypeptide chains)
4 molecules of protoporpyrin IX
4 iron atoms in ferrous state that combine with protoporphyrin IX to form 4 heme molecules
1 2,3 DPG molecule as occasional resident in hemoglobin molecule
role of 2,3 DPG in molecule of hemoglobin
regulates hemoglobin affinity for oxygen. needed in tissues to cause O₂to release from hemoglobin