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63 Cards in this Set

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what are the 4 interacting factors of Hemostasis and what are their functions?
1. Blood vessles: reduce blood flow
2. Platelets: adhere and form aggregates and contribute to coagulation process
3. Blood coagulation factors: form fibrin clot
4. Fibrinolysis: break down clot when healing is complete
What are the 4 types of bleeding patterns and their descriptions?
1. Petechia: pinpoint bleeding usually reflecting a lack of platelets
2. Ecchymosis: damage deep to tissue and bleeding comes to the surface
3. Purpura: deep bruise from venous or arterial leaking
4. Joint bleeding: blood seeps into the joints because the clotting factors are gone
What is the blood circulation cycle
Heart -> artery -> capillary -> vein
What are the 3 layers of arterial tissue and what is comprised of each?
1. Tunica Externa: connective tissue containing collagen
2. Tunica Media: external elastic membrane and smooth muscle
3. Tunica Interna: internal elastic membrane, basement membrane and endothelium
What are the 3 layers of venous tissue and what is comprised of each?
1. Tunica Externa: connective tissue containing collagen
2. Tunica Media: smooth muscle
3. Tunica Interna: basement membrane and endothelium
What are the 2 tissue layers of capillaries?
basement membrane and endothelium
4 Functions of Blood vessels
1. vasoconstriction
2. diverts blood flow
3. initiation of contact-activation of platelets to adhere with subsequent aggregation
3. contact-activation of extrinsic and intrinsic blood coagulation pathways leading to the formation of fibrin
How do you evaluate vascular function and what does this actually tell you?
Tourniquet test (capillary fragility or Rumpel-leeds test) function of how strong the BP is over time
What are 4 acquired vascular defects?
1. Autoimmune purpura
2. purpura associated with infections
3. scurvy
4. senile purpura
What is a congenital vascular defect and what are it's characteristics?
hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia: autosomal dominant and nodular lesions on mucous membranes of skin and mouth
What stem cell precursors produce platelets? what stimulates their production? Where?
From a myeloid stem cell
thrombopotetin in the bone marrow
What are the 4 stages of development for platelets synthesis?
1. megakaryoblast
2. promegakaryocyte
3. megakaryocyte
4. metamegakaryocyte
How many platelets can be made from 1 megakaryocyte?
2000-4000
How long does development from a megakaryoblast to a megakaryocyte take? where?
4-5 days in the bone marrow
Normal Platelet count
130,000 to 400,000/ μL
What is the platelet turnover?
35,000/μL/day
what is the distribution of platelets throughout the body?
1/3 in the spleen and 2/3 in circulation
what is the blood span of a normal platelet?
7-10 days
What are the possible ways that platelets are removed from the body?
removal by reticuloendothelial system in the spleen or use in clots
normal platelet size?
2-4 μm
What is in the hyalomere?
peripheral zone and cytoskeleton zone
what is in the granulomere?
organelle zone
What is found in the peripheral zone?
exterior coat (glycocalyx) and
open calalicular system
What is found inthe Cytoskeleton zone?
microfilaments and microtubules
What is found in the organelle zone?
Mitochondria, Glycogen, Alpha granules, Dense bodies, Lysosomes, and Dense Tubular System
What makes up the glycocalyx?
ABO antigens, human leukocyte antigen, and glycoproteins Ib, IIb, IIIa
What makes up the alpha granules?
beta-thromoglobulin, platelet factor 4, platelet-derived growth factor, thrombospondin
What makes up the dense bodies?
ADP, ATP, calcium, serotonin
What makes up lysosomes?
bacteriocidal enzymes, neutral proteases, and acid hydrolases
What are the 4 functions of platelets?
1. platelet plug formation
2. contributions to coagulation (PF)
3. Transport of substances such as serotonin (vasoconstrictor)
4. phagocytosis
What is the platelet turnover?
35,000/μL/day
what is the distribution of platelets throughout the body?
1/3 in the spleen and 2/3 in circulation
what is the blood span of a normal platelet?
7-10 days
What are the possible ways that platelets are removed from the body?
removal by reticuloendothelial system in the spleen or use in clots
normal platelet size?
2-4 μm
What is in the hyalomere?
peripheral zone and cytoskeleton zone
what is in the granulomere?
organelle zone
What is found in the peripheral zone?
exterior coat (glycocalyx) and
open calalicular system
What is found inthe Cytoskeleton zone?
microfilaments and microtubules
What is found in the organelle zone?
Mitochondria, Glycogen, Alpha granules, Dense bodies, Lysosomes, and Dense Tubular System
What makes up the glycocalyx?
ABO antigens, human leukocyte antigen, and glycoproteins Ib, IIb, IIIa
What makes up the alpha granules?
beta-thromoglobulin, platelet factor 4, platelet-derived growth factor, thrombospondin
What makes up the dense bodies?
ADP, ATP, calcium, serotonin
What makes up lysosomes?
bacteriocidal enzymes, neutral proteases, and acid hydrolases
What are the 4 functions of platelets?
1. platelet plug formation
2. contributions to coagulation (PF)
3. Transport of substances such as serotonin (vasoconstrictor)
4. phagocytosis
PF-1
coagulation factor V
PF-2
thromboplastin-like material
PF-3
platelet thromboplastin
PF-4
anti-heparin factor
PF-5
fibrinogen coagulant factor
PF-6
antifibtolytic factor
PF-7
platelet cothromboplastin
What substances on the platelet surface are necessary for adherence?
von Willebrand's factor (produced my endothelial cells and megakaryocytes, carrier factor VIII in plasma)
Glycoprotein Ib (in glycocalyx)
What substances are necessary for platelet aggregation?
platelet surface glycoproteins IIb and IIIa (in the glycocalyx), ADP and calcium in granules, Fibrinogen, Thrombohexane A2
What 3 laboratory tests are used to evaluate platelets?
1. Platelet count
2. Ivy Bleeding time
3. Platelet Aggregation Test
What is a normal Ivy Bleeding time and what can increase this?
2.5-9.5 minutes
increased in thrombocytopenia, inherited platelet dysfunction, aspirin administration
List and explain the 2 portions of the platelet aggregation test and
1. primary wave: platelets adhere in the presence of ADP, epinephrine, ristocetin
2. secondary wave: platelets have been stimulated to the above substances in their organelles
What are the 2 types of qantitative and 2 qualitative platelet defects?
nt1: thrombocytopenia
nt2: thrombocytosis
al1: acquired
al2: congenital
what are the 4 characteristics of thrombocytopenia?
1. decreased production
2. ineffective thrombopoiesis
3. abnormal distribution of platelets
4. increased destruction
What are 3 things which are responsible for increased platelet destruction?
1. drug-induced
2. idiopathic thrombocytopenia purpura
3. thrombotic thrombocytopenia purpura
What are the characteristics of thrombocytosis?
essential thrombocytosis/thrombocytopenia (myeloproliferative disorder, platelet counts above 1 million, high tendency to clot)
What are the characteristics of acquired platelet defect?
associated with renal disease, liver disease, drug therapy causing the inhibition of production of thrombohexane A2
What are the 3 congenital platelet defects and their characteristics?
1. von Willebrand's disease, decrease in vWF, affects platelet adhesion
2. Bernard-Soulier syndrome, decrease in glycoprotein Ib
3. Glanzmann's thrombathenia, decrease in glycoproteins IIb and IIIa