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58 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
describe structure of RBC
biconcave
anucleate
large surface:volume for easy gas exchange
how do RBCs derive energy
glucose
90% anaerobic resp
10% HMP shunt
survival time of RBC
120 days
what does membrane of RBC contain
chloride-bicarb antiprot
allows RBC to transport CO2 from periphery to lungs for elimination
WBC differential from highest to lowest:
Neutrophils Like Making Things Better

Neutrophils
Lymphocytes
Monocytes
Eosinophils
Basophils
which WBC are granulocytes
BEN
basophils
eosinophils
neutrophils
which WBC are mononuclear cells
monocytes
lymphocytes
what are the steps in forming a granulocyte
pluripotent hematopoietic cell
myeloid stem cell
promyelocyte
myelocyte
metamyelocyte
stab cell
granulocyte
what are the precursors to monocyte
pluripotent hematopoietic stem cell
myeloid stem cell
monoblast
monoctye
what are the precursors to lymphocytes
pluripotent hematopoietic cell
lymphoid stem cell
lyphoblasts
B/T cell
what are the steps to RBC formation
pluripotent hematopoietic stem cell
proerythroblast
reticulocyte
RBC
what are hte steps to platelet formation
pluripotent hematopoietic stem cell
myeloid stem cell
megakaryoblast
megakaryocyte
platelet
what are granulocytes, platelets, and monocytes all derived from (what is common precursor)
myeloid stem cell
what is contained in the granules of basophils
heparin
histamine
LTD4
other vasoactive amines
when is basophilic stippling seen
thalassemia
anemia of chronic dz
iron deficiency anemia
lead poisoning
what do eosinophils react to?
helminths and protazoa
phagocytose ag-ab complexes
causes of eosinophilai
NAACP
neoplastic
asthma
allergies
collagen vascular dz
parasites
what is contained in the PMNL granules
hydrolytic enzymes
lysozyme
MPO
lactoferrin
where do B cells go after they are mature?
migrate to peripheral lymphoid tissue (follices of LN, white pulp of spleen, unencapsulated lymphoid tissue)
when does B cell --> plasma cell
when it encounters ag
appearance of plasma cell
off center nucleus
abundant RER
well developed golgi
causes of DIC
STOP Making New Thrombi
Sepsis (gram -)
Trauma
OB complications
Pancreatitis (acute)
Malignancy
Neoplasm
Transfusion
causes of extravascular hemolytic anemia
odd shapes of RBC (spherocytes, target cells, schistocytes, etc)
autoimmune anemia
causes of intravascular hemolytic anemia
destruction via complement and lysis

paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria
microangiopathic anemia
microangiopathic anemia
seen when theres is an occlusion of a small BV, which leads to mechanical disruption of RBC (seen in DIC, TTP/HUS, SLE, malignancy)
jaundice in the hemolytic anemias
not seen in intravascular hemolysis normally, b/c the macrophages eat all of the destroyed Hb
what is haptoglobin
levels during hemolysis
a "suicide protein" that carries Hb to the spleen to get broken down

levels are low
treatment for spherocytosis
splenectomy
process behind paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria
acidosis normally develops during sleep, which predisposes cells to destruction via complement, but this is normally inhibited by DAF (which degrades complement); if not enough DAF --> lysis of RBC InTRAVASCULARLY!
how to dx G6PD deficiency during acute crisis?
look at blood smear and look for Heinz bodies
when crisis is over, look for enzyme deficiency
how to dx autoimmune hemolytic anemia
direct coomb's test (or indirect)
some kids can have extremely elevated wbc counts (>50,000) and this is not malignancy... what is it called?
leukemoid reaction
why do howell-jolly bodies appear in pts w scd?
if pts had working spleens, they would have been able to remove these abnormal cells
what should all SC pts be vaccinated against
s. pneumonia
#1 cause of osteomyelitis in SCD
#2 cause?
salmonella
s. aureus
why is hydroxyurea effective in treating SCD?
it creates an incresae in HbF, which binds to O2 tighter than adult Hb.
what would you do with an african american person who presents with microscopic hematuria, and is asymptomatic and has a normal CBC?
test for SCD!!
there may be sickling in the renal medulla and peritubular capillary (so they might be a carrier of the trait)
what does antithrombin III do?
what activates it?
breaks down factors IX, X, XI
heparin
factor V leiden?
factor 5 is resistant to breakdown by APC
leads to venous clots
protein c
what does it require
breaks down factors V and VIII
requires vit K and protein s
protein s
required as a cofactor for APC
tPA
activates plasmin, which breaks down fibrin
difference between multiple myeloma and waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia
MM: IgG or IgA in high amounts (lytic bone lesions, renal insuff from increased Ig light chains excretion - Bence Jones proteins)
W<: IgM in large amts (--> hyperviscosicty, no lytic bone lesions)
both have M spike
which form of hodgkin's lymphoma has the worst prognosis
lymphocyte depleted
translocation (9;22)
Philadelphia chromosome
CML
translocation (8;14)
Burkitt's lymphoma (c-myc activation)
translocation (14;18)
follicular lymphoma (bcl2 expression)
translocation (15;17)
M3 - AML
translocation (11;22)
ewing sarcoma
translocation (11;14)
mantle cell lymphoma
when is WAIHA seen
chronic anemia seen with:
SLE
CLL
some drugs
when is CAIHA seen
infectious mononucleosis
m. pneumonia
which NHLs are seen in children
burkitt's lymphoma
diffuse large cell
lymphoblastic lymphoma
smudge cells
cll
philadelphia chromosome
cml
auer rods
aml
how to differentiate cml from leukemoid reaction
cml has low alk-phos levels
what is a result of treating aml
cells can release auer rods --> DIC