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41 Cards in this Set

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ANATOMY--THE STUDY OF THE BODYS STRUCTURE

PHYSIOLOGY--STUDY OF THE WAY THE BODY WORKS

PATHOLOGY--STUDY OF DISEASE
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HISTOLOGY--STUDY OF TISSUES

CARDIOLOGY--STUDY OF THE HEART

DERMATOLOGY--STUDY OF THE SKIN

ENDOCRINOLOGY--STUDY OF THE ENDOCRINE SYSTEM (HOMONES, ETC)
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GASTROENTEROLOGY--STUDY OF THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM

GYNECOLOGY--STUDY OF THE FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM

HEMATOLOGY--STUDY OF BLOOD
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IMMUNOLOGY--STUDY OF THE IMMUNE SYSTEM

NEUROLOGY--STUDY OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM

OPHTHALMOLOGY--STUDY OF THE EYES

OSTEOLOGY--STUDY OF THE BONES AND THE SKELETON
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REGIONS OF THE BODY

HEAD--THE PART OF THE BODY THAT HOUSES THE BRAIN

CEPHALIC--DESCRIBES SOMETHING IN THE HEAD
CERVICAL--SOMETHING IN THE NECK
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TRUNK

THE CENTRAL PART OF THE BODY THAT HOUSES THE HEART, LUNGS, AND DIGESTIVE SYSTEM

THORAX & CHEST--UPPER PART OF TRUNK
ABDOMEN--FORMS LOWER PART OF TRUNK
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UPPER EXTEMITY--AN ARM OR A LIMB, CONTAINS 30 BONES, AND IS DIVIDED INTO 3 REGIONS
1. UPPER ARM
2. LOWER ARM
3. FOREARM AND THE HAND
THE BONES MEET TO FORM MANY DIFFERENT JOINTS, INCLUDING THE SHOULDER, THE ELBOW, THE WRIST, AND THE KNUCKLES
..THE ARMPIT (AXILLA) IS FOUND BELOW THE POINT WHERE THE ARM MEETS THE TRUNK
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LOWER EXTEMITY OR A LEG

EACH LEG CONTAINS 30 BONES, AND IS DIVIDED INTO THREE REGIONS
1. UPPER LEG
2. THIGH
3. THE LOWER LEG AND THE FOOT. THE JOINTS IN THE LEG INCLUDE THE HIP, THE KNEE AND THE ANKLE
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CAVITY--A CLOSED CHAMBER INSIDE THE BODY

MANY OF THE BODY'S ORGANS ARE FOUND IN CLOSED CHAMBERS CALLED CAVITIES
1. CRANIAL CAVITY (BRAIN & SPINAL CORD)
2. THORACIC CAVITY (HEART & LUNGS)
3. ABDOMINAL CAVITY (MOST OF DIGESTIVE SYSTEM)
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AXIS -- IMAGINARY LINE THAT RUNS DOWN THE CENTER OF THE BODY

BODY'S AXIS IS THE MIDLINE

UPPER, MIDDLE AND LOWER ARE WORRDS USED TO DESCRIBE A PART OF THE BODY
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SUPERIOR--TOWARD THE HEAD, OR TOWARD THE UPPER END OF TEH BODY

INFERIOR--TOWARD THE FEET, OR TOWARD THE LOWER END OF THE BODY

MEDIAL--AT OR NEARER THE MIDLINE
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SUPERFICIAL--AT OR NEAR THE SURFACE

PERIPHERAL--AT OR NEAR THE FARTHEST REGIONS OF THE BODY

ANTERIOR--TOWARD THE FRONT OF THE BODY, ALSO CALLED VENTRAL
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POSTERIOR--TOWARD THE BACK OF THE BODY, ALSO CALLED DORSAL

PROXIMAL--AT OR NEAR THE POINT OF ATTACHMENT

DISTAL--PART IS ONE FURTHER AWAY FROM IT
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ANGIOGRAPHY--THE EXAM OF BLOOD VESSELS USING A DYE THAT ABSORBS XRAYS

BODY SYSTEM--A COLLECTION OF ORGANS THAT WORK TOGETHER TO PERFORM SPECIFIC TASKS

ORGAN--A STRUCTURE MADE OF TWO OR MORE TISSUES THAT CARRIES OUT A PARTICULAR RANGE OF TASKS
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EPITHELIAL TISSUE--A TISSUE THAT FORMS A LINING IN OR ON THE BODY
1. FORMS THE SKIN
2. THE LINING OF THE ALIMENTARY CANAL
3. THE LINING OF THE RESPIRATORY TRACT
4. PRODUCES MALE & FEMALE CELLS
5. FORMS THE INNER SURFACES OF GLANDS
6. PROTECTS THE BODY SURFACES
7. STOPS MICRORG..FROM ENTERING THE BODY
8. ITS CELLS KEEP DIVIDING SO THE SURFACE DOES NOT WEAR AWAY
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CONNECTIVE TISSUE--A TISSUE THAT SUPPORTS THE BODY AND HOLDS IT TOGETHER
1. FORMS THE FRAMEWORK OF THE BODY
2. SHIELDS IT FROM DAMAGE
3. INCLUDES BONE & CARTILAGE WHICH FORMS
THE SKELETON & OTHER TYPES OF TISSUE THAT PROTECT & SUPPORTS THE BODY'S ORGANS
4. PRODUCE FIBERS OF COLLAGEN & ELASTIN
5. FOR TISSUE FLEXIBILTIY & STRENGTH
6. ADIPOSE TISSUE--CONTAINS LARGE STORES OF FAT
7. BLOOD--LIQUID CONNECTIVE TISSUE THAT CIRCULATES THROUGHOUT THE BODY
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MUSCULAR TISSUE--A TISSUE THAT PRODUCES MOVEMENT
1. CONTRACT WHEN TRIGGERED BY NERVES/HORMONES
2. WHEN THEY SHORTEN, THEY EITHER MOVE PART OF THE BODY, OR CHANGE THE SHAPE OF THE HOLLOW ORGANS
3. THREE TYPES OF MUSCULAR TISSUE, ALL HAVE CELLS IN THE FORM OF LONG FIBERS
1. SKELETAL MUSCLE-ATTACHED TO BONE
2. SMOOTH MUSCLE--FOUND IN SOFT PARTS OF THE BODY
3. CARDIAC MUSCLE ONLY FOUND IN HEART
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NERVOUS TISSUE--A TISSUE THAT CARRIES ELECTRICAL SIGNALS
1. MAKES UP THE BODY'S MOST IMPORTANT COMMUNICATION SYSTEM IT CONTAINS:
A. NEURONS-CARRY NERVE IMPULSES
B. GLIAL CELLS-SUPPORTS & PROTECTS NEURONS
NEURONS ARE SOME OF THE LONGEST CELLS IN THE BODY, THEY DO NOT DIVIDE ONCE THEY HAVE BEEN FORMED
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MUCOUS MEMBRANE--A MEMBRANE LINING PART OF THE BODY THAT OPENS TO THE OUTSIDE
1. SHEETS OF CELLS THAT LINE THE ALIMENTARY CANAL & RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
2. OUTERMOST CELLS PRODUCE MUCUS
3. LUBRICATES THE SURFACE OF THE MEMBRANE
4. TRAPS FOREIGN PARTICLES SUCH AS DUST
5. CONSIST OF A LAYER OF CONNECTIVE TISSUE
6. IN MOST MUCOUS MEMBRANES, THE CONNECTIVE TISSUE IS ITSELF BACKED BY A LAYER OF MUSCULAR TISSUE
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SEROUS MEMBRANE--A MEMBRANE LINING PART OF THE BODY THAT DOES NOT OPEN TO THE OUTSIDE
1. LINE BODY CAVITIES
2. SURROUND THE ORGANS INSIDE THEM
3. PRODUCE SEROUS FLUID
4. LUBRICATES ORGANS SO THEY CAN SLIDE PAST EACH OTHER EASILY
5. SEROUS MEMBRANES ARE MADE OF EPITHELIAL TISSUE BACKED BY CONNECTIVE TISSUE
6. THEY INCLUDE PLEURAL MEMBRANES-WHICH SURROUND THE LUNGS
7. ALSO THE PERITONEUM-WHICH LINES THE ABDOMINAL CAVITY
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ATOM--TINY PARTICLE OF MATTER--MADE UP OF
1. PROTONS
2. NEUTRONS
3. ELECTONS
SMALLEST PART OF AN ELEMENT THAT CAN EXIST ON ITS OWN, BUT IN THE BODY MOST ATOMS DO NOT EXIST SEPARATELY, THEY FORM PARTS OF CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS
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ELEMENT--A PURE SUBSTANCE THAT CONTAINS ONLY ONE KIND OF ATOM

25 ELEMENTS ARE FOUND IN THE BODY
4 ELEMENTS
1. CARBON
2. HYDROGEN
3. OXYGEN
4. NITROGEN MAKE UP OVER 95% OF THE BODY'S WEIGHT
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MOLECULE--A CHEMICAL UNIT MADE UP OF TWO OR MORE ATOMS JOINED TOGETHER

A MOLECULE IS MADE OF ATOMS HELD TOGETHER BY CHEMICAL BONDS. THE SMALLEST MOLECULES CONTAIN JUST 2 ATOMS
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CHEMICAL COMPOUND--A SUBSTANCE FORMED WHEN 2 OR MORE ELEMENTS COMBINE

THE ATOMS IN A COMPOUND ARE COMBINED IN EXACT PROPORTIONS, COMPOUNDS OFTEN HAVE VERY DIFFERENT PROPERTIES TO THE ELEMENTS THEY CONTAIN
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ORGANIC COMPOUND--A CHEMICAL COMPOUND THAT CONTAINS CARBON

HUMAN BODY HAS 4 MAIN TYPES OF ORGANIC COMPOUNDS
1. CARBS
2. PROTEINS
3. LIPIDS
4. NUCLEIC ACIDS
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INORGANIC COMPOUND--A CHEMICAL COMPOUND THAT DOES NOT CONTAIN CARBON
1. WATER
2. OXYGEN
3. MINERALS
4. CARBON DIOXIDE
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IONIC COMPOUND--A COMPOUND THAT CONTAINS IONS

(TABLE SALT IS AN EX OF IONIC COMPOUND, IT CONTAINS SODIUM ATOMS THAT HAVE LOST ELECTRONS, AND CHLORINE ATOMS THAT HAVE GAINED THEM
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CHEMICAL REACTION--A CHEMICAL CHANGE

OXIDATION--A CHEMICAL REACTION IN WHICH A SUBSTANCE COMBINES WITH OXYGEN
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WATER--A LIQUID THAT IS ESSENTIAL TO LIFE
1. COMPOUND OF HYDROGEN AND OXYGEN
2. FOUND IN ALL LIVING THINGS
3. 50-75% OF BODY WEIGHT
4. GOOD SOLVENT
5. HOLDS HEAT, GREAT FOR BODY TEMP
6. FLOWS EASILY, HELPS TO CARRY FLUIDS
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SOLUTION--A UNIFORM MIXTURE OF ONE SUBSTANCE DISSOLVED IN ANOTHER
1. BODY CONTAINS MANY DISSOLVED SUBSTANCES OR SOLUTES
2. THE SUBSTANCE IN WHICH THEY ARE DISSOLVED--THE SOLVENT--IS WATER
3. LIPIDS DOES NOT DISSOLVE IN WATER
4. LIPIDS PLAY A MAJOR PART IN SEPARATING CELLS FROM THEIR WATERY SURROUNDINGS
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CONCENTRATION--THE STRENGTH OF A SOLUTION

IF A SOLUTION IS VERY STRONG, IT IS CONCENTRATED AND CONTAINS A LARGE QUANITY OF SOLUTE COMPARED TO TEH QUANITY OF SOLVENT. IF IT IS WEAK OR DILUTE, IT CONTAINS A SMALL AMOUNT OF SOLUTE
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CARBS

1. BODYS MAIN CHEMICAL FUEL
2. BREAKING THEM DOWN IN A CONTROLLED WAY RELEASES THE ENERGY NEEDED TO POWER THE BODY'S CELLS
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CARB--AN ORGANIC COMPOUND THAT CONTAINS ATOMS OF CARBON, HYDROGEN AND OXYGEN

A CARB MOLECULE CONTAINS TWICE AS MANY HYDROGEN ATOMS AS OXYGEN OR CARBON ATOMS
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SIMPLIST CARB
1. MONOSACCHARIDE
A. 6 CARBON ATOMS OR LESS, CENTRAL ATOMS ARE OFTEN ARRANGED IN A RING

DISACCHARIDE--MADE UP OF 2 MONOSACCHARIDES LINKED TOGETHER

POLYSACCHARIDE--IS A LONG CHAIN OF TENS OR HUNDREDS OF MONOSACCHARIDES
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SUGAR--SIMPLE CARB THAT HAS A SWEET TASTE

MOST SUGARS ARE MONOSACCHARIDES OR DISACCHARIDES
1. INCLUDE GLUCOSE, WHICH IS FOUND IN MOST PLANT AND ANIMAL CELLS

FRUCTOSE OR FRUIT SUGAR--FOUND IN FRUIT OR HONEY

SUCROSE OR CANE SUGAR--FOUND IN PLANT SAP
SUGARS GIVE THE BODY AN ALMOST INSTANT ENERGY SUPPLY
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GLUCOSE--MOST ABUNDANT SUGAR IN THE BODY
1. BLOOD SUGAR, IS A MONOSACCHARIDE
2. BODY'S MAIN FUEL
3. BROKEN DOWN DURING AEROBIC RESPIRATION TO RELEASE ENERGY
4. OBTAINS GLUCOSE FROM FOOD, DIGESTING OTHER CARBS, STARCH AND SUCROSE
5. LEVEL OF GLUCOSE IN THE BLOOD IS CONTROLLED BY HORMONES
6. GLUCOSE CAN BE STORED BY CONVERTING IT INTO GLYCOGEN, AND RELEASED AGAIN BY BREAKING DOWN THE GLYCOGEN
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LACTOSE--A DISACCHRIDE FOUND IN MILK

1. IS A SUGAR THAT PROVIDES ENERGY FOR GROWING INFANTS
2. IT IS FOUND IN HUMAN MILK
3. ALSO IN COW'S MILK AND DAIRY PRODUCTS
4. IT IS BROKEN DOWN DURING DIGESTION BY AN ENZYME CALLED LACTASE
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STARCH--A POLYSACCHARIDE THAT PLANTS USE TO STORE ENERGY
1. FOUND IN CEREALS, WHEAT AND RICE, CROPS, POTATOES

DURING DIGESTION STARCH IS BROKEN DOWN TO FORM A SUGAR CALLED MALTOSE, WHICH IS MADE OF TWO GLUCOSE UNITS, MALTOSE IS THEN BROKEN DOWN TO GLUCOSE ITSELF
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CELLULOSE--A POLYSACCHARIDE THAT PLANTS USE AS A BUILDING MATERIAL
1. SIMILIAR TO STARCH
2. FOUND IN VEGETABLES AND OTHER PLANTBASED FOODS
3. UNLIKE STARCH, CELLULOSE CANNOT BE DIGESTED, IT PASSES STRAIGHT TO THE BODY, AND FORMS A MAJOR PART OF DIETARY FIBER
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GLYCOGEN--A POLYSACCHARIDE THAT THE BODY USES AS AN ENERGY STORE
1. ALSO CALLED ANIMAL STARCH
2. BODY MAKES GLYCOGEN BY LINKING GLUCOSE MOLECULES TOGETHER
3. STORED IN THE LIVER AND IN MUSCLES
4. WHEN THE BODY RUNS SHORT OF GLUCOSE, GLYCOGEN IS BROKEN DOWN, AND THE GLUCOSE THAT IS FORMED IS RELEASED INTO THE BLOOD
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LIPIDS--AN INSOLUBLE ORGANIC COMPOUND

1. LIPIDS INCLUDE FATS AND OILS, TOGETHER WITH OTHER FAT AND OIL BASED SUBSTANCES
2. THEIR MOLECULES CONTAIN CARBON AND HYDROGEN ATOMS, TOGETHER WITH A FEW OXYGEN
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