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37 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
List some causes of conductive hearing loss
Cerumen, middle ear effusion, FB, cholesteoma, otosclerosis
List some causes of sensorineural hearing loss
schwannoma, noise induced trauma, measles, mumps, meniere's, ototoxic meds - ASA, age, acustic neuroma
What are some common causes of tinnitus
Trauma, noise, meniers,
What are the sx of external otitis
px, reddness, swelling, dishcarge. Associated also with swimmer's ear.
What is necrotizing otitis externa (malignant external otitis)
persistent otitos in DM or immunocompromised evolving into osteomyelitis of the skull base.
What are the most common bacterial pathogens causing acute OM
strep pneumo, strep pyrogens, H. flu
What is serous otitis media
fluid build up behind TM, post infection, allergies
How might a pt with Meniere's disease present
vertigo, tinnitus, hearing loss. Episodic; >30 minutes <4 hours
How might a pt with labyrinthitis present
sudden acute vertigo. Most commong form of vertigo. Post URI
How might a pt with benign positioning vertigo present
sudden vertigo onset from a change in the person's head position. Ca+ sediment in hear canal breaks free
How might a pt with acoustic neuroma (vestibular schwannoma) present
hearing loss, unilateral, sudden. Sensorineuroal
What is rhinitis medicamentosa
chronic rebound nasal congestion from over use of afrin (oxymetazoline)
How might a pt with acute sinusitis present
facial px and tenderness, toothache, HA, fever
How might a pt with nasal polyps present
recurrent sinus infection because sinus's can't drain, chronic obstruction. Hx allergies or asthma
How might a pt with nasopharyngeal carcinoma present
vague sx, persistent unilateral nasal obstruction, proptosis, discharge, bleeding, ill-fitting dentures, doesn't get better
What is a peritonsillar abscess (quinsy) how do you treat it
abscess on tonsils. ST, fever, swollen glands, denies hoarsness - cough or coryza. Caused by Group A beta strep, mono, diphtheria. Tx I&D
What is a complication of strep pharyngitis
rhematic fever, glomerular nephritis
What pathogens cause external otitis
gram negative rods or fungi
Describe typical SS adn Tx for: acute OM
SS: pressure, decreased hearing often fever. Tx: ABX nasal decongestants
Describe typical SS adn Tx for: Acute mastoiditis
SS: post auricular px, erythema, spiking fever. Tx: IV antibiotics, myringotomy for culture and drainage
Describe typical SS adn Tx for: Serous OM
Tx: oral corticosteroids, and oral ABX like acute OM
Describe typical SS adn Tx for: Chronic OM
SS: purulent discharge, conductive hearing loss, increased SS during URI. Tx: removal of debris, protective earplugs, topical ABX
Name some complications of middle ear infections:
mastoiditis, petrous apicitis, otogenic skull osteomyelitis, facial paralysis, sinus thrombus, CNS infection
What is cervical vertigo
dysfunction of the cervical proprioception sites located in thefacet joints.
What is perilymphatic fistula
blunt head trauma like a hand slap to ear, extreme baro-trauma, vigorous valsavla. may require surgery
What is acoustic neuroma
benign lesion within internal auditory canal. unilateral hearing loss with sudden onset, decreased speech, continious disequilibrium.
Describe 1. Cause 2. SS 3. Tx for: viral rhinitis (common cold)
1. rhinovirus, adenovirus, corona virus, RSV 2. HA, congestion, scratchy throat, malaise, fever less likely. 3. comfort measures, time
Describe 1. Cause 2. SS 3. Tx for: allergic rhinitis
1. exposures creating release of IgE antibodies 2. sneezing, itching, etc. 3. intranasal steroids, topical antihistamines, systemci antihistamines
Describe 1. Cause 2. SS 3. Tx for: rhinitis medicamentosa
1. chronic rebound nasal congestion associated iwth over use of afrin. 3. stop use of afrin - duh!
Describe 1. Cause 2. SS 3. Tx for: acute sinusitis
1. URI, allergies, strep pneumo, H. flu, 2. facial px, HA, fever 3. ABX
Describe 1. Cause 2. SS 3. Tx for: viral pharyngitis
1. HIV, flu, mono 2. URI sx 2. comfort measures, time
Describe 1. Cause 2. SS 3. Tx for: bacterial pharyngitis
1. N. Gonorrhea, mycoplasma Pneumo, chlamydophilia Pneumo
Describe 1. Cause 2. SS 3. Tx for: infectious mono
2. enlarged tonsils with shaggy white-purple membrane that may extend into nasopharynx, breath fetid
Identify several causes of sores and ulceration in mouth
candidiasis, aphthous ulcer (canker sores) herpes stomatitis, sialadenitits (stones in duct)
Describe common cause of hoarseness
vocal cord disorder due to harsh turbulent air flow from tumor or swelling; viral laryngitis or squamous cell carcinoma of larynx. If persists > 2 wks, further eval necessary.