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52 Cards in this Set

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What is the the proto-MT?
The standard Hebrew text of the Old Testament as transmitted by the Masoretes.
Who are the Masoretes?
The Masoretes were the 8th-10th Century group of scribes who wrote the Masorah. Most people think it is tied to the Hebrew word masar, which means “to deliver up”.
How are the vowels interpretive?
The Masoretes were fixing the ambiguity of merely consonantal words. Usually there's only one possible meaning, but not always. So for example, Isaiah 9:7, the vowels can mean different things. Is davar in this verse “a word” as the Masoretes said, or is it “death” as in the Septuagint?
What textual divisions did the Masoretes add/preserve?
closed paragraphs, open paragraphs, and verse divisions.
Which vowel system is the MT?
Tiberian
What is the BHS?
The BHS is a modern printed edition that contains the Leningrad Codex.
When were the vowels added?
The vowels were added
What are the two types of accents?
disjunctiveindicate a syntactical break, like a comma, semicolon, period; and conjunctiveindicate two things should be tied together, like a hyphen.
How are the accents interpretive?
Because they can help us to parse verbs.
What is the atnach?
It's a verse divider. ^ is the symbol.
Whate are the masoretic notes? purpose?
These are the masorah proper. Notes made along with the text to help preserve it and to help people correctly copy it and understand it.
What is the ketiv-qere? How does it work?
It is altnernative way to read the text. It reflects their unwillingness to change the consonants. The first is the ketiv (what is written), the second is the qere, what is written. You are supposed to take the vowels that are in the text and put them with the consonants on the side. (See example yaaseh in Ruth 1).
What Hebrew text does th BHS contain? Is it eclectic like NT Greek?
The Leningrad Codex. It is not eclectic.
Approximately where and when is the oldest writing found? How did it differ from alphabetic witing?
Sumeria ca 3000. It had pictures for individual words.
What is cuneiform?
Cuneiform is the method of using a reed to inscribe a clay tablet. It was then adopted by other people groups such as the Hittites.
What is the the proto-MT?
text family with the greatest representation in the biblical manuscripts at Qumran; very similar to the constal text later preserved by the Masoretes.
Who are the Masoretes?
The Masoretes were the 8th-10th Century group of scribes who wrote the Masorah. Most people think it is tied to the Hebrew word masar, which means “to deliver up”.
How are the vowels interpretive?
They are fixing the ambiguity of merely consonantal words. Usually there's only one possible meaning, but not always. So for example, Isaiah 9:7, the vowels can mean different things. Is davar in this verse “a word” as the Masoretes said, or is it “death” as in the Septuagint?
What textual divisions did the Masoretes add/preserve?
closed paragraphs, open paragraphs, and verse divisions.
Which vowel system is the MT?
Tiberian
What is the BHS?
The BHS is a modern printed edition that contains the Leningrad Codex.
When were the vowels added?
The vowels were added by the Masoretes in the 9th/10th century bc.
What are the two types of accents?
disjunctive-indicate a syntactical break, like a comma, semicolon, period; and conjunctive-indicate two things should be tied together, like a hyphen.
How are the accents interpretive?
Because they can help us to parse verbs.
What is the atnach?
It's a verse divider. ^ is the symbol.
Whate are the masoretic notes? purpose?
These are the masorah proper. Notes made along with the text to help preserve it and to help people correctly copy it and understand it.
What is the ketiv-qere? How does it work?
It is altnernative way to read the text. It reflects their unwillingness to change the consonants. The first is the ketiv (what is written), the second is the qere (what is read). You are supposed to take the vowels that are in the text and put them with the consonants on the side. (See example yaaseh in Ruth 1).
What Hebrew text does th BHS contain? Is it eclectic like NT Greek?
The Leningrad Codex. It is not eclectic.
Approximately where and when is the oldest writing found? How did it differ from alphabetic witing?
Sumeria ca 600. It had pictures for individual words.
What is cuneiform?
Cuneiform is the method of using a reed to inscribe a clay tablet. It was then adopted by other people groups such as the Hittites.
What are targums?
translation of the OT in Aramaic; originall orally based, they are characterized by paraphrase.
What is the MT?
Standard Hebrew text of the OT as transmitted by the Masoretes.
Where and when are the oldest examples of an alphabet?
19th cent BC in Egypt
What is Ugarit?
Ugarit was somewhat unique in that they combined the alphabet with the cuneiform system of writing. Ugarit has Akkadian tablets and the older type of cuneiform as well.
They had an alphabet of 30 characters. This stuff tells us about the culture of Baal, which the Israelites were often dealing with.
Who most likely spread the alphabet to the Greeks?
A
In what Script was the OT originally written?
paleo-Hebrew
What is the script now used in the OT? When did it change?
It
Why is the change in scripts important for text criticism?
It helps us to know and identify errors or the lack thereof.
What is the value of ancient versions for text criticism?
It helps us identify the actual text that the Bible should be in, and it further substantiates its authenticity.
What is Vorlage?
The text that laid before the editors.
What are the possible reasons for content differences other than a different Vorlage?
T
Why is the translation philosophy of a particular tranlsation important?
Because
What is the Septuagint? When? What is its importance for text criticism?
It is a Greek translation of the OT that was written approximately in the 3rd century bc. It is important for text criticism
Who is Aquilla?
Aquila, one of the translators of a Targum. (c. 130 A.D.) – Jewish proselyte who made this translation.
Very wooden and literal translation. Everywhere with the direct
object marker it was translated with Greek "with." Many try to say
Aquila was also Onqelos, one of the translators of a Targum.
Who is Symmachus?
(c. 170 A.D.) – Debated whether he was a Christian or
Jewish. His translation is somewhat a hybrid.
What is the Letter of Aristeas?
It proposes to recount the beginnings of the
LXX.
What is Kahle's theory?
He questions that there was unified LXX. What people call the LXX is actually multiple translations done by a number of communities. A misnomer to speak of a unified LXX. We have this with the Aramaic translations, there were
different Targums for the different regions. Pointless to try and
find the original LXX. Every Greek text from this period is important
because it shows the translations of various communities.
Who is Theodotion?
(c. 175 A.D.) – What were thought to be his renderings
began popping up earlier, recognized in some NT translations and one
of the scrolls found at the Dead Sea. Hypothesis now is that he was
actually revising an earlier revision of the LXX that occurred around
the turn of the millennium.
When and what is Origen's hexapla?
c. 240) – In order to equip people entering into
polemics with the Jews. He made an edition that had six different
columns (our first critical apparatus). The columns had the Hebrew
text, Hebrew transliterated in Greek characters, Aquila's version,
Symmachus's version, his version of the LXX, and Theodotion's version.
Who is Lucian?
(c. 300) – Well regarded revision of the LXX. Similar to
Theodotion, the readings that come from him could be found prior to
this time, for example in the DSS. Preserves a very old reading.
What are the Palestinian targums?
Jeruselami (torah) and pseudo-Johnathan (torah).
What are the Babylonian targums?
Onkelos (prophets; literal and less expansionistic)