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131 Cards in this Set

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WHAT ARE THE BLOOD VESSELS?
ARTERIES
CAPILLARIES
VEINS
WHICH VESSEL TAKES THE BLOOD AWAY FROM THE HEART?
ARTERIES
WHICH VESSEL ALLOWS FOR EXCHANGE OF SUBSTANCES WITH TISSUE FLUID?
CARILLARIES
WHAT ARE VENULES?
SMALL VEINS THAT DRAIN BLOOD FROM CAPILLARIES INTO VEINS.
WHICH BLOOD VESSEL TAKES THE BLOOD TO THE HEART?
VEINS
THESE VESSELS HAVE VALUES THAT KEEP BLOOD FROM FLOWING BACKWARD WHEN CLOSED.
VEINS
WHAT IS THE MYOCARDIUM PORTION OF TH HEART?
LARGEST PART OF HEART CONSISTING OF A CARDIAC MUSICLE
DEFINE PERICARDIUM
THICK MEMBRANE SAC THAT SURROUNDS THE HEART - SECRETES SMALL AMOUNT OF FLUID
WHICH ORGAN OF THE BODY REGULATES THE HEART BEAT?
BRAIN
EACH HEART BEAT IS CALLED A _________ ________.
CARDIAC CYCLE
WHAT MAKES UP THE HEART?
MYOCARDIUM MUSCLE
WHICH ARTERIES SUPPLY HEART W/ OXYGEN & NUTRIENTS
CORONARY ARTERIES
WHAT DO THE RIGHT & LEFT VENTRICLES CONTAIN?
RIGHT & LEFT ATRIA
TRACE BLOOD FLOW THROUGH HEART
SUPERIOR & INFERAR VENA CAVA (02 POOR)
RIGHT ATRIUM
RIGHT VENTRICLE
PULMONARY ARTIES TO LUNGS (02 POOR)
PULMONARY VEINS (02 RICH)
LEFT ATRIUM
LEFT VENTRICLE
AORTA (02 RICH TO BODY)
DEFINE SYSTOLE
CONTRACTS OF HEART CHAMBERS
DEFINE DIASTOLE
RELAXATION OF THE HEART
DEFINE SARA
SA (SINOATRIAL NODE) IS IN THE RA (RIGHT ATRIUM)
THE PACEMAKER OF THE HEART.
INITIATES BEAT AND CAUSES ATRIA TO CONTRACT - SENDS OUT IMPULSES TO AV (ATRIOVENTRICULAR NODE (RIGHT ATRIUM) -ALLOWS FOR VERY SLIGHT DELAY BEFORE VENTRICLES BEGIN CONTRACTION
WHAT IS THE PACEMAKER OF THE HEART
SARA
THE PACEMAKER PROCEDURE OF THE HEART IS CALLED ________ __________.
INSTRINSIC CONTROL OF HEARTBEAT
WHAT IS PART OF THE BRAIN STEM THAT CONTROLS HEARTBEAT, BLOODPRESSURE, BREATHING & VITAL FUNCTIONS?
Medulla Oblongata
WHAT IS THE PROCEDURE CALLED THAT REGULATES THE HEARTBEAT SLOW, FAST IN THE MEDULLA OBLONGATA?
EXTRINSIC CONTROL OF HEARTBEAT
WHAT IS ECG AND WHAT DOES IT DO?
ELECTROCARDIOGRAM - RECORDS ELECTRICAL CHANGES IN MYCARDIUM DURING CARDIAC CYCLE
WHAT 3 THINGS DOES THE ECG DO?
DIAGNOSE HEART ABNORMALITY
DETERMINES IRREGULAR HEARTBEAT
MONITORS HEART DISEASE
WHAT IS THE P WAVE IN THE ECG?
P WAVE SIGNALS ATRIA ARE ABOUT TO CONTACT
WHAT DOES THE QRS SIGNAL?
THAT VENTRICLES ARE ABOUT TO CONTRACT
WHAT IS THE T-WAVE
OCCURS WHEN VENTRICLES ARE RECOVERING FROM CONTRACTION
HOW IS VENTRICULAR FIBRILLATION DETECTED?
BY A ECG
WHAT IS VENTRICULAR FIBRILLATION?
ABNORMALITY OF VENTRICAL - CAUSES UNCOORDINATED CONTRACTION OF VENTRICLES- CAUSES BY HEART ATTACK CAN BE CAUSED BY DRUGS OR INJURY
WHAT IS EMERGENCY DEFIBRILLATION?
ELECTRIC SHOCK TO HEART MUSICLE
REGAINS NORMAL RHYTHM
THE PROCEDURE OF THE SURGE OF BLOOD ENTERING ARTERIES FOLLOWING A HEARTBEAT CAUSES ELASTIC WALLS TO STRETH AND RECOIL IS CALLED A _______.
PULSE
THE PULSE RATE OF THE RADIAL AND CAROTID ARTERY TELLS THE __________ RATE.
HEARTBEAT
HEART ATTACK
THE BLOCKAGE OF CORONARY ARTERIES, BLOOD FLOW CEASES, SHORTAGE OF OXYGEN IN LUNGS, DEATH OF MUSCLE CELLS AND CARDIAC CAPAICTY IS REDUCED IS CALLED____________.
DEFINE ATHEROSCLEROSIS
BLOOD CLOTS, BUILD UP OF CHOLESTEROL CAUSES HEART ATTACKS AND STROKES
A SMALL CRANIAL ARTERIOLE BURSTS OR IS BLOCKED BY AN EMBOLUS. LACK OF OXYGEN CAUSES PORTION OF BRAIN TO DIE - PARALYSIS OR DEATH IS CALLED A ________
STROKE
WHAT IS THROMBUS
STATIONARY CLOTS
A ________ IS WHEN A THROMBUS DISLODGES AND MOVES ALONG WITH THE BLOOD.
EMBOLUS
WHAT IS THE AVERAGE WEIGHT OF THE HEART?
10-12 OZ.
WHAT IS THE AVERAGE HEART RATE - BPM?
70 BEATS PER MINUTE
DESCRIBE AND TRACE THE PULMONARY CIRCUIT .
RIGHT ATRIUM RECEIVES 02 POOR BLOOD FROM BODY SENDS TO RIGHT VENTRICLE THEN ONTO LUNGS TO GET RICH
DESCRIBE AND TRACE THE SYSTEMIC CIRCUIT
LEFT ATRIUM RECEIVES 02 RICH (OXYGENATED) FROM LUNGS AND SENDS TO LEFT VENTRICLE - IT PUMPS 02 RICH BLOOD THROUGH AORTA AND OUT TO BODY
WHAT IS THE SEPTUM OF THE HEART
DIVIDES RIGHT HALF AND LEFT HALF OF HEART
THE _____________ VALUES INCLUDE THE TRICUSPID AND BICUSPID AND THEIR FUNCTION IS TO PREVENT BACKFLOW INTO THE ATRIA WHEN VENTRICLES ARE CONTRACTING
ATRIOVENTRICULAR VALUES
WHERE ARE THE BICUSPID AND TRICUSPID VALUES LOCATED AND WHAT ARE THEY CALLED?
IN RIGHT ATRIUM AND CALLED ATRIOVENTRICULAR VALVES
WHAT ARE THE SEMILUNAR VALUES AND THEIR FUNCTION?
PULMONARY & AORTIC SEMILUNAR VALUES

PREVENT BACKFLOW INTO VENTRICLES WHEN RELAXING
WHAT FACTORS AFFECT HEART RATE?
AGE
GENDER
EXERCISE
BODY TEMP
WOMEN HAVE THE FASTER HEART RATE--TRUE OR FALSE?
TRUE
HOW DOES EXERCISE RAISE THE HEART RATE?
INCREASES SYSTEMIC BLOOD PRESSURE & ROUTES MORE BLOOD TO WORKING MUSCLE
__________ INCREASES HEART RATE
__________ DECREASES HEART RATE
HEAT
COLD
WHAT CAUSES IRREGULAR HEART BEATS?
BRADYCARDIA AND TRACHYCARDIA
____________ IS WHEN HEARTR RATE SLOWER THAN 60 BPM, & RESULTS IN LOW BODY TEMP, AND CAUSED BY DRUGS, & BRAIN EDEMA (HEAD TRAUMA)
BRADYCARDIA
___________ IS FAST HEART RATE - 100 BPM CAUSED BY STRESS, HIGH BODY TEMP, DRUGS AND HEART DISEASE - PROMOTES FIBRILLATION.
TACHYCARDIA
WHAT IS MITRAL VALVE PROLAPS?
FLPS BECOME INCOMPETENT AND GO INTO LEFT ATRIUM CAUSING BLOOD REGURGITATION (LEAKY VALVE)
WHAT CORRECTS LEAKY VALVE AKA MITRAL VALVE PROLAPSE
VALVE REPLACEMENT SURGERY
__________________ IS THE INFLAMMATION OF THE CARDIAC MUSCLE LAYER AND IT WEAKENS HEART AND PUMPS INEFFECTIVELY
MYOCARDITIS
IF STREPTOCOCCAL INFECTION IN CHILDREN IS UNTREATED IT CAN RESULT IN _________?
MYOCARDITIS
_______ IS A SMALL DEFORMITY IN VALUE- FLOW BACK IS NOT PREVENTED - PRODUCES SWISHING NOISE & EFFICIENCY OF BLOOD FLOW AND CAN HINDER PERSON'S ABILITY TO DO NORMAL ACTIVITY
HEART MURMUR
WHAT IS THE MUSCLE OF THE HEART CALLED?
MYOCARDIUM
WHAT DO THE CELLS IN THE MYOCARDIUM DO?
MUSCLE CELLS ARE SPECIALIZED FOR CONTRACTION
WHAT 5 THINGS MAKE UP THE HEART MUSCLE?
FASCILIES
MUSCLE FIBERS
SARCOMERE
MYOSIN
ACTIN
WHAT ARE FASCICLES?
BUNDLES OF INDIVIDUAL MUSCLE FIBERS - THERE ARE MANY OF THESE BUNDLES IN THE MUSCLE - EACH BUNDLE IS COMPOSED OF MANY MUSCLE FIBERS (CELLS)
WHAT ARE MUSCLE FIBERS?
SINGLE MUSCLE CELLS
EACH CELL WITHIN THE FASCICLE CONTAINS THIS ___________
MYOFIBRILS
________________ IS THE CONTRACTILE UNIT LOCATED IN THE MYOFIBRILS
SARCOMERE
SARCOMERE CONSISTS OF ________ AND __________
MYSIN AND ACTIN
WHY IS MYOSIN
THIN FILAMENT IN THE SARCOMERE
WHAT IS ACTIN
THICK FILAMENT IN THE SARCOMERE
WHAT ARE Z LINES
ATTACHMENTS FOR SECTION OF SARCOMERES
WHAT DO THE MYSIN & ACTIN DO
IS A SLIDING MECHANISM WHICH CREATES THE CONTRACTION OF THE MUSIC
WHAT IS ATP?
Adenosine triphosphate
SUPPLIES ENERGY TO MUSCLE
WHICH PART OF THE SARCOMERE DOES MOST OF THE WORK?
MYOSIN
WHICH PART OF THE SARCOMERE BREAKS DOWN ATP?
MYOSIN
THE PROCEDURE OF ACTIN FILMENTS SLIDE PAST THE MYOSIN FILAMENTS-- MYOSIN PULLS ACTIN TOWARD CENTER OF SARCOMERE IS CALLED WHAT?
MUSCLE CONTRACTION
THE __________ ___________ IS THE CHANGE IN THE SHAPE OF A MOLECULE - GETS ENERGY FOR THIS CHANGE FROM WHERE?
ALLOSTERIC CHANGE
ATP
WHAT IS THE SKELETAL MUSCLE CONTRACILE UNIT?
SARCOMERE
WHAT ARE THE FIVE CARDIOVASCULAR DISORDERS?
HYPERTENSION
ATHEOCLEROSIS
STROKE
HEART ATTACK
ANEURYSM
WHAT IS HYPERTENSION
HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE
WHAT IS ANEURYSM AND WHAT CAUSES IT?
BALLOONING OF BLOOD VESSEL
ATHEROSCLEROSIS CAUSES IT
HOW ARE BLOOD CLOTS TREATED?
t-PA (drug) to dissolve clot
coronary bypass
angioplasty
what happens in a coronary bypass?
attach blood vessels to heart and by pass clogged areas
what is angioplasty?
stents or chemical used to get blood to pass through vein or artery
_________ are small arteries visible to the naked eye that branch into capillaries. the dilation effect of these affect the ______________.
arterioles

blood pressure
___________ is irregularites in initation or conduction of beat impulses - results in anormal heart beat.
ARRHYTHMIA
A _________ IS THE THYTHMIC EXPANSION AND RECOIL OF AN ARTERIAL WALL OF THE ARTERY
PULSE
WHAT IS SYSTOLIC PRESSURE?
THE HIGHEST PRESSURE - WHEN BLOOD IS EJECTED FROM HEART
WHAT IS DIASTOLIC PRESSURE?
LOWEST PRESSURE - WHEN VENTRICLES ARE RELAXING
GOOD SYSTOLIC PRESSURE IS
LESS THAN ___________.
100
GOOD DIASTOLIC PRESSURE IS LESS THAN
_______________.
80
A GOOD READING FOR BLOOD PRESSURE WOULD BE _____ OVER ________.
100
__

80
HEART SOUNDS ARE _______ AND ______
LUB AND DUP
________ IS THE TWO ATROVENTRICULAR VALUES CLOSE DURING VENTRICULAR CONTRACTION.
LUP
_______ IS TWO SEMILUNAR VALUES CLOSE DURING VENTRICULAR RELAXATION.
DUP
WHAT THINGS WILL REDUCE THE RISK OF A HEART ATTACK?
NO SMOKING
LOW CHOLESTEROL
EXERCISE
TREATING HYPERTENSION
A MYCARDIAL INFARCTION OCCURS WHEN PORTION OF HEART MUSCLE DIES DUE TO LACK OF OXYGEN. WHAT IS THIS CALLED?
HEART ATTACK
WHAT ARE THE WAYS IN WHICH BLOOD IS RETURNED TO THE HEART?
ONE WAY VALVES
SKELETAL MUSCLE CONTRACTIONS
BREATHING
DEFINE ONE WAY VALVES?
OPEN TO ALLOW BLOOD THROUGH AND THEN CLOSE TO PREVENT BACKFLOW
DEFINE SKELETAL MUSCLE CONTRACTIONS
HELP PUMP BLOOD THROUGH BY CONSTRUCTING VEINS & SQUEEZING BLOOD
___________ IS A MECHANISM THAT AIDS IN RETURN OF BLOOD TO THE HEART AND IT HELPS TO PUMP BLOOD THROUGH CONSTRICTING VEINS AND SQUEEZING THE BLOOD.
BREATHING
DESCRIBE THE PROBLEMS WITH BLOOD RETURNING TO THE HEART (6)
FAINTING
VARICOSE VEINS
LIGHT HEADEDNESS
TIA (TRANSIENT ISCHEMIC)
ANEMIA
CARBON MONOXIDE POISONING
__________ occurs when there is already low blood pressure and a person stands too long causing less blood circulating because it accumulates in veins.
fainting
_________________ occurs when veins are stretched due to accumulation of blood in veins - also weak valves
varicose veins
____________________ comes from lifing or improper breathing
light headedness
_______________ or TIAs are temporary interruptions of the blood supply to area of brain - mini strokes
transient ischemic attacks
WHAT ARE THE SYMPTOMS OF TIAs
onset of stroke symptoms
last 70 to 24 hours
can cause no permanent damage
precursor to full stroke
WHAT IS ISCHEMIA
inadequate oxygen due to insufficient blood flow - because of clogged arteries
WHAT IS ANEMIA
DECREASE IN CAPACITY TO CARRY OXYGEN IN THE BLOOD - LACK OF B12
WHAT DOES ANEMIA CAUSE?
BLOOD LOSS,
BONE MARROW PROBLEMS &
SICLE CELL
_______________ IS A COLORLESS, ODORLESS BURNING FUEL WHICH BINDS TO HEMOGLOBIN INSTEAD OF THE OXYGEN IN BLOOD. 200,000 PPL SUFFER EACH YEAR FROM THIS WHICH CAUSES HEART ATTACKS
CARBON MONOXIDE POISONING -- CO
DESCRIBE KOROTKOFF
BLOOD PRESSURE IS RELEASED - THUMP
(SYSTOLIC
PRESSURE STOPS - DIASTOLIC (NO SOUND)
________________ IS UP TO 6 TIMES MORE COMMON IN DIABETICS.
ATHEROSCLEROSIS
2 FUTURE OPTIONS OF TREATING HEART TRANSPLANTS ARE:
ARTIFICIAL HEARTS
CARDIAC CELL TRANSPLANTS
_________________ IS NORMAL SYSTEM OF THE HUMAN BODY WORKING TOGETHER - DELIVERS OXYGEN & NUTRIENTS TO TISSUES AND TAKES AWAY METABOLIC WASTES. CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM MAINTAINS THIS SYSTEM BY CREATING THE BLOOD FLOW THAT CARRIES NUTRIENTS, AND OXYGEN.CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM?
HOMEOSTATSIS
_____________________ ARE DUCTLESS ORGANS THAT SECRETES HORMONES INTO BLOODSTREAM
ENDOCRINE SYSTEM
IN THE ________________ GLAND, NEGATIVE FEEDBACK CONTROLS _______ AND AFFECTIVE OF A HORMONE IS OPPOSED BY AN ANTAGONISTIC _______. THE END RESULT IS _____________________.
ENDOCRINE
SECRETION OF HORMONE
HORMONE
HOMEOSTATIS
DEFINE GLUCOSE
SIMPLE SURE SUPPLIES ENERGY
AND BUILDING BLOCK FOR COMPLEX
CARBS
A MAJOR SUPPLIER OF ATP IS _________.
GLUCOSE
PLANTS STORE GLUCOSE AS _________.
ANIMAL STORE GLUCOSE AS ________.
STARCH
GLYCOGEN
Insulin

_________ IS THE Hormone secreted by the pancreas that lowers the blood glucose level by promoting the uptake of glucose by cells and the conversion of glucose to glycogen by the liver and skeletal muscles.
INSULIN
___________ IS THE Hormone secreted by the pancreas which causes the liver to break down glycogen and raises the blood glucose level.
GLUCAGON
WHAT ARE THE CELLS IN THE PANCREAS THAT SECRETES GLUCAGON
ISLETS OF LANGERHANS
ALPHA CELLS
______________ RELEASE INSULIN
CARBOHYDRATES
DESCRIBE THE CYCLE OF BLOOD GLUCOSE REGULATION
CARBS - INCREASE BLOOD GLUCOSE - RELEASE OF INSULIN - STIMULATES GLUCOSE UPTAKE BY CELLS

NO CARBS - DECREASE IN BLOOD GLUCOSE, RELEASE GLUCAGON - STIMULATES GLUCOSE RELEASE BY GLYCOGEN BREAKDOWN
WHAT IS DIABETES? WHAT ARE THE TWO TYPES?
BODY HAS TROUBLE USING GLUCOSE
TYPE I AND TYPE II
WHAT ARE THE TWO HORMONES THAT REGULATE BLOOD GLUCOSE LEVEL?
INSULIN LOWER BLOOD GLUCOSE (SUGAR) AND GLUCAGON - RAISES BLOOD GLUCOSE (SUGAR)
WHAT IS DIABETES MELLITUS?
TYPE I AND MOST COMMON DIABETES--- PANCREASE FAILS TO PRODUCE INSULIN WHICH PROMOTES INSULIN DEPENDENT AND
TYPE II - CELLS FAIL TO TAKE UP GLUCOSE - NONINSULIN DEPENDENT.
WHAT PROBLEMS ARE ASSOCIATED WITH DIABETES
HIGH OR LOW HYPOGLYCEMIA
WHAT ARE KEYTONES?
STRONG ORGANIC ACIDES - sugar not used so fats are mobilzed - rapid deep breating - blood levels of fatty acids and metabolites rise dramatically.
WHAT ARE THE TREATMENTS OF DIABETES I
DAILY INSULIN INJECTIONS
BLOOD SUGAR MONITORING
DIET MANAGEMENT
WHAT ARE THE TREATMENTS FOR DIABESTES II
HEALTHY DIET AND REGULAR EXERCISE
ORAL DRUGS
WHAT IS THE MOST COMMON FORM OF DIABETES AND LIST SYMPTOMS
TYPE II - 95% OF DIABETES
AGE 40, OVERWEIGHT & INACTIVE
PANCREASE DOES NOT PRODUCE ENOUGH INSULIN OR CELLS DO NOT RESPOND
CELLS LACK RECEPTORS TO INSULIN DETECTION
THE PANCREAS IS LOCATED IN THE ____________________.
ABDOMINAL CAVITY.
THE _______________________ ISLETS SECRETE _____ WHICH LOWERS THE BLOOD GLUCOSE LEVEL. IT ALSO SECRETES ______ WHICH RAISES GLUCOSE LEVEL
THESE TWO THINGS MAINTAIN HOMEOSTASIS.
PANCREAS
INSULIN
GLUCAGON