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32 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What does the first heart sound correspond to in the cardiac cycle?
The onset of ventricular systole
What does the 2nd heart sound correspond to?
Onset of ventricular diastole
What makes the noise of the first heart sound?
Closing of the MV and TV
What makes the noise of the 2nd heart sound?
Closing of the aortic and pulmonic valve.
Where is the first heart sound heard the loudest?
At the apex
Where is the 2nd heart sound heard the loudest?
At the 2nd intercostal space
Are the 1st and 2nd heart sounds high or low freq?
What are S1 and S2 best heard with?
The diaphragm
Which heart sound normally splits on inspiration?
What is the reason for normal physiologic splitting of S2 on inspiration?
Increased intrathoracic pressure resulting in increased VR and RV ejection period
When S2 is split, what is the order of valves closing?
1. Aortic
2. Pulmonic
What causes S4?
Atrial contraction
When is S4 heard?
Before S1, in late diastole
Is S4 high or low frequency?
What is S4 heard best with?
The bell
In what position is S4 heard best?
Left lateral decubitus
What are causes of an audible S4?
-Young adults/athletes (normal)
-Ischemic heart disease
When is S3 heard?
After S2, early in diastole
What is an audible S3 indicative of?
Congestive heart failure
What are 3 types of murmurs that can be heard?
What 5 things should be noted about murmurs?
How is Intensity rated?
On a scale of 1-6/6
What is a 1/6?
Only audible by a cardiologist
What is a 2-3/6?
What is a 4/6?
A thrill is detectable
What is a 5/6?
The murmur can be heard with the stethoscope just sitting on the chest wall.
What is a 6/6?
The murmur can be heard with the steth off the chest wall.
What is a holosystolic murmur associated with?
-Mitral insuffiency
-Tricuspid insufficiency
What is an ejection murmur associated with?
Aortic stenosis
What is an early diastolic murmur associated with?
Aortic insufficiency
What is a continuous murmur associated with?
Where is the PMI best palpable?
In the left 5th IC space