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50 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
The Cardiac Cycle
What is this Picture
When does the first heart sound occur?
Occurs in early Systole
Which pressure exceeds the other during the first heart sound?
Ventricular pressure exceeds atrial pressure
Which valves close during the first heart sound?
Mitral & Tricuspid Valves close during S1.
What causes the first heart sound (S1)?
The rapid bulging of the valve leaflets after they close produces the noise.
Where is the first heart sound loudest?
It is loudest at the apex.
Where is the first heart sound diminished?
It is diminished at the base
Describe the normal first heart sound?
When does the second heart occur?
Early in Diastole
What happens to ventricular pressure during the second heart sound (S2)?
Ventricular Pressure falls below Aortic & Pulmonary Artery Pressures.
What causes the second heart sound (S2)?
Aortic & Pulmonic Valves Shut, & Rapidly bulge, producing the S2.
Where is the Second Heart Sound Loudest?
It is Loudest at the base.
Where is the second heart sound diminished?
It is diminished at the Apex.
Describe the sound of the Second Heart Sound (S2)?
It's the "DUB"
What happens to pulmonary pressures during inspiration?
Pulmonary Pressures drop.
What causes the Pulmonic Valve to stay open longer?
The pressure dropping in the lungs.
What does splitting that goes away with expiration indicate?
A normal condition.
What does fixed splitting indicate?
Fixed splitting indicates disease
Why does splitting of S2 occur?
The second heart sound is really two valve sounds together A2 + P2.
What age group can the third heart sound be normal?
people < 30 yrs & (athletes?)
What produces the third heart sound?
Chordae Tendineae during rapid filling
What is the third heart sound described as?
Ventricular Gallop
When does the Third Heart Sound occur?
immediately after S2.
Where & what position is the third heart sound heard best(S3)?
Best heard at apex, with patient on their left side.
Which part of of the stethoscope should be used to ausculate the third heart sound?
Bell of Stethoscope with light pressure (low pitch)
What part of Ken-tuck-EE is the third heart sound?
This heart sound is rarely normal except in highly conditioned athletes.
The fourth heart sound (S4)
The contact of the atria against a stiff ventricle is called?
Atrial Gallop (S4)
When does the fourth heart sound occur?
Immediately before S1.
Where & in which position is the fourth heart sound best heard?
It is best heard at the apex, with the patient on their left side.
Which part of the stethoscope should be used to auscultate the fourth heart sound?
Bell with light pressure.
What part of TENN-e-ssee is the fourth heart sound?
What causes the sound of Heart Murmers?
Turbulent blood flow through a vascular structure.
How long can murmurs last?
longer than the four heart sounds.
When can murmurs occur?
During systole or diastole.
What are the characteristics of patients with innocent heart murmers
Young and/or
What are the characteristics of innocent heart murmurs?
Tends to be early systolic
Rarely Holosystolic.
When does a systolic murmur occur?
Between S1 & S2
When does a diastolic murmur occur?
between S2 & S1
What "shapes" are used to describe heart murmurs?
Grade 1 murmur
Barely Audible
Grade 2 murmur
Little Louder
Grade 3 murmur
Clear audible - No Thrill
Grade 4 Murmur
Thrill Palpable
Grade 5 Murmur
Audible with Stethoscope partly off the Chest & Thrill
Grade 6 Murmur
Audible without Stethoscope
What are the pitches of heart murmurs?
Heart Murmur Qualities?
What are the systolic murmurs?
-Aortic & Pulmonic Stenosis
-Mitral & Tricuspid Regurgitation
What are the Diastolic Murmurs?
-Mitral & Tricuspid Stenosis
-Aortic & Pulmonic Regurgitation