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18 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What do the following aa. supply and what do the acronyms stand for.
Lt ant. descending - ant. interventricular septum
Rt coronary a. - SA and AV node
Post. descending - inf. lt vent
LCA = lt coronary a.
CFX = circumflex a.
define CHF
Heart can't supply enough blood to meet demand
Most common type of CHF failure?
High or low output
low output - heart broken most common
high output inc. tiss demand - less common
most common cause of rt side CHF
lt side CHF
most common causes of lt sided failure in CHF (5)
systemic HTN, mitral vlv dz, aortic vlv dz, IHD, Primary myocardial dz
Causes of rt sided failure in CHF?
lt side failure, pulm HTN, lung dz, Cor Pulmonale, semilunar vlv dz, congenital (caused by l-r shunts)
CHF compensation mechanisms?
neurohormonal stimulation-inc. catechols, + iono, + chrono
Hypertrophy - concentric with inc pressure, eccentric with inc volume
What is the risk of compensation in CHF?
inc work load, inc need for O2, vulnerable to IHD
define compensated and decompensated HF
comp - failing but co still OK
decomp - comp mechanisms have failed and co begins to dec
CHF is the major cause of death in pts with what problem
untreated HTN
How does CHF cause end organ failure
blood backs up in the venous system causing less flow through the organs -> hypoxia
What happens in kidneys with CHF
Dec perfusion -> to inc aldosterone -> inc blood volume -> inc pulm edema and inc congestion
What is the most common symptom of lt vent failure (LVF), and name the 3 types of this symptom
dyspnea, - exertional, orthopnea, paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea
Clinical features of CHF
Dyspnea (most common)
mm fatigue
tachycardia (> 100)
enlarged ht
distended jugular vv.
wt gain
dependent edema
pleural and pericardial effusion
S3 with rales at base
name 2 substances that excreted during CHF, and what do they do?
atrial natriutic factor
brain natriutic protein
reduce hemodynamic overload
What do ANFs do
down regulate aldosterone
dec symp sigds to ht and kid
inc renal perfusion
inc Na excretion
limitations of using ANF levels clinically?
wide range in normal ppl
pts with CHF can have normal levels
What is the most appropriate use of ANF?
to distinguish b/w CHF and emphasema in ED pt with SOB