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132 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
what are the strings that attact to the papillary muscles that keep the valves closed
the cordae tendineae
what are the strings that attact to the papillary muscles that keep the valves closed
the cordae tendineae
what is the indentation of the inner wall of the right atrium that used to be a passageway btwn the two atria as a fetus?
the fossa ovalis
what is the connective tissue between the pulmonary vessels and the aorta that used to connect them in a fetus?
the ligamentum arteriosum
what turns in to the ligamentum arteriosum?
the ductus arteriosum
what turns into the fossa ovalis?
foramen ovale (passageway thru artia)
what turns into the ligamentum teres?
the ductus venosus (duct thru liver)
what is do the coronary arteries supply?
the heart muscles
where do the two coronary arteries (the left and right) branch off of?
the aorta
what are the branches of the left coronary artery?
the left anterior descending artery (LAD)
circumflex artery
what are the two branches of the right coronary artery?
the posterior interventricular artery
and marginal artery
what coronary artery supplies the anterior intventricular portion of the heart?
the LAD
what artery supplies the left lateral side of the left ventricle?
the cicumflex artery
what coronary artery supplies the right lateral side of the heart>
the marginal artery
where is the great cardiac vein found?
with the LAD
what innervates the cardiac muscles?
Purkinje fibers
what coronary artery supplies the posterior side of the heart?
the posterior interventricular artery
where is the middle cardiac vein found?
with the posterior interventricular artery
where is the Sinoatrial (S-A) node found?
in the wall of the right atrium
where is the coronary sinus found and where does it drain?
between the atria and drains to the right atrium
where does the impulse from the S-A node spread down to?
to the atrioventricular node (AV)
where is the AV node found?
between the right atrium and ventricle
what is the pathway of the cardiac impulse?
SA node--AV node--Bundle of His--Bundle branches (L and R)--Purkinje fibers
what artery supplies the SA and AV nodes?
the right coronary artery
what CN functions with the parasympathetic system to decrease the heart rate?
what muscles decrease the dimensions of the thorax?
int. intercostals
what muscles decrease the dimensions of the thorax?
int. intercostals
where are the external intercostals located?
in the intercostal spaces (run INFEROMEDIALLY)
what is the function and innervation of the external intercostals?
they function during inspiration, elevating the ribs

innervated by the intercostal nerves
what muscles are located deep to the external intercostals and which direction do they run in?
internal intercostals

what is the function and innervation of the internal intercostals?
function during forced expiration (depress ribs)

innervated by intercostal nerves
what muscles increase the anteroposterior and lateral dimensions of the thorax?
the ext. intercostals
where does the diaphram originate and insert into?
O: xiphiod process, lower 6 ribs, upper two vertebrae

I: Central tendon lthe formas a musculo fibrous sheet that separates the thoracic and abdominal cavities
what separates the thoracic and abdominal cavities?
the diaphram
what muscles contracts and increases the vertical dimension of the thorax during inspiration?
the diaphragm
what passes through the diaphragm?
the esophagus, inferior vena cava, and the aorta
what accessory muscles function during active inspiration?
the sternocleidomastoid, scalenes and pectoralis minor
what accessory muscles function during forced expiration?
the abdominal muscles (and int. intercostals)
what is located with in the mediastinum?
the heart
which direction is the apex of the heart oriented in?
downward and to the left
what is the outer layer of the pericardium?
fibrous pericardium
what is the inner layer of the pericardium?
serous pericardium
what are the two layers of the pericardium?
fibrous and serous pericardium layers
what chamber of the heart does the deoxygenated blood enter through?
the right atrium
what two vessels enter the right atrium?
the superior and inferior vena cava
what valve is found at the base of the aorta?
the aortic semilunar
what valve is between the right atrium and ventricle?
the right atrioventricular or TRICUSPID valve
what valve is located btwn the left atrium and ventricle?
the left atrioventricular or BICUSID valve
what is another name for the bicusid valve?
the mitral valve
what are the two semilunar valves?
the pulmonary and aortic
what are the two septa of the heart?
artial and ventricular
what are the three sulci of the heart?
the coronary and anterior and posterior intervertricular sulci
what type of muscle is found in the ventricular walls?
trabeculae carnae
what muscles are attached to the chordae tendinae?
papillary muscles
what is the function of the papillary muscles?
they keep the valves closed
where do the anterior intercostal arteries branch off of?
the internal thoracic artery
where do the posterior thoracic arteries branch off of?
from the aorta
which veins empty into an azygos system of veins and join the superior vena cava?
the posterior intercostal veins
which great vessel does the posterior intercostal veins enter after joining the azygos venous system?
the superior vena cava
where do the anterior intercostals empty into and where do those veins enter the central venous system?
they empty into the internal thoracic veins and then drain into either the superior vena cava or the brachiocephalic veins
what nerves innervate the thoracic wall?
the ventral rami of T1-T12
what is another name for T12?
the subcostal nerve
where is the thoracic nerves found?
they course with the internal costal artery and vein along the INFERIOR border of the rib
what parts of the thoracic wall do T1-T12 innervate?
intercostals, cutaneal nerves, sympethetic nerves
what innervates the diaphragm?
the phrenic nerve (C3-5) and peripheral afferents from the lower intercostal nerves
what are the two parts of the respiratory system?
conducting, and respiratory segments
what is another word for the nostils?
external nares
what is the alae?
the "wing part of the nostril (outside portion)
what makes the nasal septum?
the ethmoid bone, vomer bone and cartilage
what two concha are part of the ethmoid bone and what one is its own bone>
the superior and middle --ethmoid
what is the function of the conducting segment of the system?
warm, clean, and humidify the air
what three parts make up the interior lining of the nasal cavity?
mucus membrane, vasculas plexus, olfactory mucosa
what is bound to the periosteum and perichondrium of the supporting bones and cartilage of the bone?
nasal mucosa
what is the mucus membrane continuous with in the respiratory system?
lining of communicating nasopharynx, paranasal sinuses, lacrimal sac and conjunctiva
what are the choanae?
paired openings between the nasal cavity and nasal pharynx
what is another word for the pharyngeal tonsils?
where is the nasopharynx found?
behind the nose
where is the oropharynx found?
in the mouth
what makes up the oropharynx?
palatine tonsils, lingual tonsils
what provides protection for the voice and allows the speech muscle to connect to it>
the larynx
what are the four cartilages in the larynx?
what is the only complete ring found in the airway?
the cricoid
what cartilage is pyramid like and serves as attachments for the vocal cords?
what is another word for hte false vocal cords?
vertricular folds
where are the false vocal cords found in respect to the true?
outside of the true
what is the name for the space at the gase of the tongue anterior to the epiglottis?
what laryngeal muscles move muscle that give speech?
the intrinsic
which laryngeal muscles move the muscles of the larynx (speech swallowing etc.)
extrinsic muscles
what is a series of "C" shaped cartilages that extends from the larynx till it spilts in two?
the trachea
what is the name of the smooth muscle tht connects the two ends of the cartilage?
what ligaments connect the cartilages of the trachea?
the annular ligaments
where does the trachea bifurcate?
at T5
what is another name for T5 where the trachea bifurcates?
what is the most sensitive area of the treaobronchial tree
the place where the trachea bifurcates at T5 (carina)
what is the smooth serous lining of the thoracic cavity and surface of the lung?
the pleura
what part of the pleura surrounds each lung?
the visceral pleura
what part of the pleura covers the outer portions, the ribs, diaphragm, and mideastinum?
the parietal pleura
where is the plural cavity found?
between the visceral and parietal pleurae
what are the two pleural recesses?
the costaldiaphragmic (lower corner of lungs)
the mediastinal (anteriorly)
which lung has three lobes?
the right lobe
what are the fissures of the right lobe?
horizontal and oblique
what are the fissures of the left lobe?
the oblique
how many lobes are on the left lobe?
what is found within the hilus of the lungs?
the bronchus, pulmonary artery and veins, and bronchial arteries and veins
which bronchi enter the lungs?
the primary (bifurcation of the trachea)
what bronchi supply their respective lobes?
the secondary bronchi
what are the two kinds of primary bronchi?
right and left
what are the secondary bronchi found off of the right bronchi?
superior, middle, inferior lobar bronchi
what are the secondary bronchi on the left?
superior and inferior lobar brochi
which bronchi supply the bronchoplumonary segements?
tertiary (segmental) bronchi
what are the pyramid shaped segments of the lung with its apex at the root of the lung and its base at the pleural surface?
bronchopulmonary segments
what is the name for the branches beyond the tertiary bronchi? How many generations are there?
where is the first bronchi to not have cartilage?
the bronchiole
instead of cartilage, what surronds the bronchioles?
smooth muscle
what are branches of terminal bronchioles?
respiratory bronchioles?
where does the respiratory segment begin?
at the respiratory bronchioles
where is the first bronchi to not have cartilage?
the bronchiole
how many layer of epitheleal cells make up the aveoli?
what are the two cells types that form alveoli?
type 1 and 2
what alveolar cell forms a border with a capillary? (95%)
what alveolar cell makes surfactant, achemical that reduces surface tension... so that the sac does not collapse?
type 2
where does O2 and CO2 exchange btwn lungs and capillaries occur?
in the alveoli
what is the path of the deoxygenated blood to the alveoli?
right ventricle--plumonary artery--pulmonary arteriole--capillary
what is the path that the oxygenated blood takes back to the heart from the alveoli?
pulmonary venule--pulmonary vein--left atrium
what allows the alveoli to expand with inspiration and passively recoil with expiration?
the elastic fibers
how many alveoli are found in 1 lung?
300 million
140 m2
which vessel carries oxygenated blood from the lungs to the heart? What chamber does it enter?
the pulmunary vein
left atrium
Through which chamber to which vessel does the deoxygenated blood travel?
from right ventricle to pulmunary artery
which of the two primary bronchi is shorter and wider?
the right
what valve is found at the base of the pulmonary vein?
the pulmonary semilunar valve
what is systole?
what is diastily?
relaxation of the heart chamber