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84 Cards in this Set

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In medicine, associated witht he closure of a normal opening; in the ear, associated with a closed external auditory meatus
atresia
a cyst which typically grows from the upper protion of hte tympanic membrane. A pouch is formed, into which the dead skin that lines the pouch sheds. As more skin is shed into the pouch, it grows. The effect is that of a foreign object within the middle ear cavity. This may lead to erosion of the ossicles, the formation of pus, and a discharge from the ear
cholesteatoma
occurs when infection persists in the middle ear cavity for a prolonged time period. The ear will often discharge pus, which has a foul odor.
chronic otitis media
Refers to one aspect of the transformer action of hte middle ear. Sound is collected over a relatively large area (the eardrum) and is transferred to an area 13 times smaller--the stapes footplate. This in effect causes a pressure increase at the oval window, since the original force has remained unchanged, butht he area has been reduced. This "condensation" of energy accounts for a considerable mechanical advantage of the middle ear (about 23 dB)
condensation effect
Occurs when changes in the skin that lines the exteranl auditory meatus permit the growth of bacteria of fungi. When this occurs there is considerable swelling of hte canal walls. Hearing loss occurs only when the ear canal is comletely closed.
external otitis (swimmer's ear)
a common cause of conductive hearing loss due to the blocking of the ear canal with cerumen
impacted cerumen
the mechanical advantage that is gained through the combined effect of the malleus and hte incus. This accounts for about 2dB of the total 25 dB of amplification provided by the middle ear system.
Lever action
a surgical operation that aims to remove diseased mastoid air cells. There are several forms, each with a different purpose.
Mastoidectomy
an inflammation of the mastoid air cells
mastoiditis
occurs when the fluid present within the tympanic cavity is thickened. The thickened fluid is not infected (see erous otitis media)
mucous otitis media
an operation designed to repair a perforation of the tympanic membrane
myringoplasty
a surgical incision of the eardrum to drain fluid or pus
myringotomy
Those conditions in which fluid present within the middle ear cavity is noninfected. Both serous otitis media and mucous otitis media fall into this category
nonsuppurative otitis media
occurs whenever the ossicular chain in interrupted. The cause may be head trauma, fracture, or disease.
ossicular disontinuity
a condition in which conductive hearing loss occurs usually through a gradual fixation of the stapes in the oval window. Although the actual cause is unknown, a pathological condition occurs such that the new bony growth is laid down around the stapes footplate. This of course impedes vibration of the stapes with a resulting conductive hearing loss.
otosclerosis
A common cause of conductive loss. It may arise as the result of a head cold, allergies, enlarged adenoids, or other conditions that impair Eustachian tube function. The condition is characterized by the accumulation of clear, thin fluid wihtin the middle ear cavity, which serves to impair sound conduction. Is also referred to as nonsuppurative otitis media.
serous otitis media
a surgical procedure to improve hearing in cases of otosclerosis. In this operation, the immobile stapes if first removed and is hten replaced by a prosthesis.
stapedectomy
a condition in which fluid is present in the middle ear and the fluid has become infected (pus formation).
suppurative otitis media (purulent otitis media)
the biological amplification process in the middle ear that allows the efficient transfer of energy from the low impedance middle ear to the high impedance perilymph. It is made up of the condensation effect and the lever action.
transformer action
a surgical procedure that aims to reconstruct the middle ear's conductive function. One for involves grafting various types of tissue to replace or repair a diseased or perforated eardrum.
tympanoplasty
a nerve that carries nerve impulses from a sensory organ to the central nervous system
afferent nerve
long extensions of nerve cells which carry information away from the cell body
axon
extends from the osseous (bony) spiral lamina to the outer wall of the cochlea, where it is held by the spiral ligament. It forms the upper side of the scala tympani, and also provides a base upon which the organ of Corti rests.
basilar membrane
the actual hollowed-out form, within the temporal bone, of the series of communicating canals and cavities that comprise the labyrinth.
bony labyrinth (osseous labyrinth)
a thin shelf of bone which partially divides the cochlea for most of its length
bony spiral lamina
the auditory branch of the VIII cranial or auditory nerve. The fibers that compres it arise from the spiral ganglion of Corti.
Cochlear nerve
Groups of cell bodies which receive the fibers from the cochlear nerve
Cochlear nuclei
Small, finger-like processes of a nerve cell which carry nerve imulses to the cell body. They are the receiving ends of the neurons or affectors.
dendrites
a small membranous tube which unites the saccule with the scala media
ductus reuniens
a nerve that carries nervous impulses from teh central nervous system to the periphery
efferent nerve
the fluid that fills the membranous labyrinth
endolymph
a collection of nerve cell bodies that have a common function but lie outside the central nervous system
ganglion
both the inner and outer ___ are the actual receptor cells of of acoustic stimuli within the cochlea. They derive their names fromteh hair-like structures, cilia, that project from their tops. The inner are in a single row, and the outer ones are three rows which run down the basilar membrane.
hair cells
a small opening located at the apical end of the cochlea that allows communication between the scala vestibuli and the scala tympani
helicotrema
a very small passage in tieh petrous portion of the temporal bone through which the VIII cranial (auditory) and VII cranial (facial) nerve pass on their way to the central nervous system
internal auditory meatus
the system of interconnecting canals and cavities within the temporal bone that makes up the inner ear. It consists of the Cochlea, the semicircular canals, and the vestibule.
labyrinth
a thickening of the fibrous membrane that covers the osseous spiral lamina
limbus
the lowest part of the brainstem, extending from the pons to the spinal cord
medulla
a system of communicating membranous ducts and sacs which is contained within the larger bony labyrinth. The form of it generally conforms to the shape of the bony labyrinth. Contained within it are the sensory receptors for both the auditory and vestibular systems. It is filled with endolymph.
membranous labyrinth
the central core of bone around which the cochlea turns for about 2 3/4 turns
modiolus
a thin white sheath of fatty substance which surrounds the axons of most nerve fibers. Its purpose it so act as an insulator between the axon (which has a positive electrical cahrge) and the surrounding environment (which is negatively charged).
myelin sheath
projections from the cell bodies of nerve cells; the term may be used for describing both dendrites and axons
nerve fiber
a transient electrochemical change which rapidly sweeps from one end of a nerve fiber to the other. Once it reaches its termination at one fiber, may excite other fibers, muscles, or glands.
Nerve impulse
a nerve cell consists of a body (soma), an axon, and dendrites. These are the basic units of the central nervous system
neuron
a collection of nerve cell bodies int eh central nervous system that have a common feature
nucleus
The actual sense organ of eharing, located on the upper surface of the basilar membrane, within the scala media
organ of Corti
consists of two membranous sacs, the utricle and the saccule, and is located within the vestibule. It is that part of the vestibular apparatus which responds to linear acceleration
otolith system
a small, oval-shaped opening which separates teh middle from the inner ear. It is closed by the stapes footplate and annular ligament. It terminates the scala vestibuli at its basal end
oval window
the fluid that fillst he bony labyrinth
perilymph
is the time just after the fiber has been discharged. During this period, the fiber will not be fully charged and it will take a considerably stronger stimulus than usual to initiate a nerve impulse.
refractory period
The membrane that forms the base of the scala vestibuli and the upper side of the scala media. It extends diagonally from near the osseous spiral lamina to the outer cochlear wall.
Reissner's Membrane
It is a thin membrane which lies on top of the hair cells in the organ of Corti. The ciliated ends of the hair cells perforate this membrane and then extend toward the tectorial membrane
reticular lamina
a small round opening which separates the middle from the inner ear. Its membrane serves as teh termination of the scala tympani at its basal end
round window
a membranous sac located within the vestibule. This along with the utricle comprise the otolith system. It communicates through the ductus reuniens, with the scala media
saccule
triangular in cross section and is filled with endolymph. It is bounded by the scala vestibuli on its top side and by the scala tympani on its bottom side. It is part of the membranous labyrinth and contains the organ of Corti. It is also referred to as the cochlear duct or cochlear partition.
scala media
the lowermost channel in teh cochlea. It is part of the bony labyrinth and contains perilymph. It is bounded on its upper side by the basilar membrane
scala tympani
One that is acquired for various reasons after birth. Noise exposure, disease, ehad trauma, presbycusis, and ototoxic drugs are possible casues
acquired hearing loss
the absense of oxygen
anoxia
one in which the site of the hearing disorder is within the cochlea itself
cochlear hearing loss
an electrical potential which may be recorded from various places in the cochlea. It closely resembles the waveforms of the sounds that enter the ears. It is thought that it originates in teh hairs of the hair cells, and serves to stimulate the auditory nerve fibers which innervate the hair cells
cochlear microphonic
One that existed before birth; may be either hereditary or acquired in utero
congenital heraing loss
a clinical electrophysiological procedure that records electrical responses of the cochlea and auditory nerve to various acoustic signals
electrocochleography (ECoG)
Theory of hearing in which the analysis of pitch is thought to occur at the cerebral level; the cochlea simply acts to transduce that acoustic signals to an appropriate neural code which the brain interprets
frequency theory of hearing
a general term which refers to an inflammation of the inner ear. The condition is associated with vertigo and hearing loss
labyrinthitis
an inflammation of hte membranes that cover the brain, or of the spinal cord
meningitis
refers to a permanent reduction of audiroty sensitivity after exposure to intense sound
permanent threshold shift (PTS)
a theory of hearing in which the analysis of pitch is thought to occur in the cochlea; the brain acts as a receiver of the already decoded auditory messages
place theory of hearing
a hearing loss in which the auditory dysfunction is located along the path of hte auditory nerve (VIII cranial nerve)
retrocochlear hearing loss
An acute viral disease, usually mild in degree. It most often occurs in children and young adults and is characterized by a pale pink rash. If a pregnant woman contracts it, primarily in the first trimester of pregnancy, the fetus may develop a number of congenital defects. These include hearing loss, cardiovascular defects, and visual difficulties.
Rubella; "German measles"
refers to the mechanical bending of the hair cells on the organ of Corti by the tectorial membrane as the fluids in the cochlea move
shearing action
a set of symptoms that characterize a disease
syndrome
an infectious and chronic venereal disease which is transmitted either by direct contact or congenitally
syphilis
a temporary reduction in hearing sensitivity following exposure to intense noise (not permanent)
temporary threshold shift (TTS)
the orderly arrangement of auditory centers in the auditory central nervous system, such that each center would be arranged as a frequency map of the cochlea. Thus, the frequency arrangement of the cochlea would be unrolled at other levels in the auditory system
tonotopic organization
a device that changes energy from one form to another, thus allowing energy to flow from one system to another
transducer
Conducts nerve impulses toward the brain; "ascending tract"
afferent pathway
a condition in which degenerative changes in the arteries cause a thickening and hardening of the arterial walls, decreasing the blood supply
arteriosclerosis
the inability to recognize auditory stimuli, even though sensitivity may fall within normal limits
auditory agnosia
a large bundle of small fibers which runs from the medial geniculate body to the auditory cortex
auditory radiations
caused by a lesion that involves either the auditory pathways from the brainstem to the medial geniculate body, or the auditory centers of the cortex, or both
central hearing loss
a nerve that crosses over from one side of the brainstem or brain to the other
decussate
Conducts nerve impulses away from the brain to the periphery; "descending tract"
efferent pathway
the last auditory relay station before the auditory cortex; located on the thalamus; receives its auditory impulses through the inferior colliculus and then sends the impulses to the cortex by the way of the auditory radiations
medial geniculate body
an intricate relay station through which nerve impulses pass on their way to and from the cortex
thalamus