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81 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
CDC
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
AIDS
Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome
HIV
Human Immunodeficiency Syndrome
GRID
Gay Related Immune Deficiency Syndrome
MADD
Mothers Against Drunk Driving
MMWR
Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
IOM
Institute of Medicine
UCS
Union of Concerned Scientists
CDC
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
EPA
Environmental Protection Agency
FDA
Food and Drug Administration
DHHS
Department of Health and Human Services
NIH
National Institutes of Health
OSHA
Occupational Safety and Health Administration
NACCHO
National Association of County and City Health Officials
CMS
Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services
AHRQ
Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality
IHS
Indian Health Service
NCHS
National Center for Health Statistics
NCI
National Cancer Institute
CPSC
Consumer Product Safety Commision
NHIS
National Health Interview Survey
NHANES
National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
BRFSS
Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System
SEER
Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End-Results
EMS
Eosinophilia Myalgia Syndrome
HPDP
Health Promotion Disease Prevention
EEE
Eastern Equine Encephalitis
CHD
Coronary Heart Disease
FDI
Food Distributors International
HRQOL
Health Related Quality of Life
DHHS
,role?
Dept. of Health and Human Services
-fed. reg. of other agencies...supplies fed. taxes to CDC, NIH, FDA, CMS, AHRQ, IHS
NIH
,role?
National Institutes of Health
-funded by DHHS
-fed. focal pt. for med. research in US
CDC
,mission
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
-to work with partners
-to promote hlth and qol by preventing and controlling disease, injury, and disability
FDA
,mission?
-Food and Drug Administration
-concerned with safety of medicine, food, cosmetics, etc.
CMS
,mission?
-Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services
-to achieve effective, up-to-date HC coverage and to promote qlty care for beneficiaries
AHRQ
-mission?
-Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality
-supports research
-to improve outcomes
-reduce costs
-address safety
-broaden access to services
-improve practices
IHS
-mission?
Indian Health Service
IHS PRIMARY FN
operates hosp. and clinics for native amer.
CDC PRIMARY FN
-statistics
-MMWR
-the MAIN assessment and epidemiologic tool
-crisis-oriented
AHRQ PRIMARY FN
support research for HC qlty and cost
NIH primary fn
like cdc assessment but provides longer view of res. history
FDA primary function
regulation of food and drugs
EPA primary function
-H2O, pollution
-prime agency for environment
Dept. of Agriculture primary fn?
-food stamps
-nutrition
-school lunches
-standards of meat safety
Dept. of labor primary fn
-workplace safety
Dept. fo VA primary fn
-have their own medical and hlth svcs
dept of defense primary fn
MC for armed forces
3 dominant federally funded programs under DHHS?
CDC
NIH
FDA
ASTHO
Association of State and Territorial Health Officers
Bill to Law procedure
Local Community presents idea>>>> Congresman >>>>> Congress >>>>> House of Representatives >>>>> Senate >>>> President
NCHS
National Center for Health Statistics
-part of CDC
-Data analysis
-vital stats
CPSC
Consumer Product Safety Commission
NHIS
Describe
,assess prevalence
,self-report
NHANES
-assess prevalence and risk factors
-same goal as nhis but more accurate because not self-report
-exams done by traveling practitioners
Describe BRFSS
-unlike nhanes and nhis this is not carried out by nchs
-this is carried out by local st ph depts
-self report like nhis to assess prevalence and risk factors
What reaches a farther range of people, nhis or nhanes
nhis, about 50000
nhanes, about 5000 people, 15 counties or so
PAR
population at risk
epidemiology?
the study of the distribution and determinants of disease frequency in human populations?
incidence vs prevalence
incidence, killed or heal quickly
prevalence, chronic illness
Cholera cause?
contaminated drinking h2o
hepatitis cause
contaminated food/water
cryptosporidiosis cause
contaminated water
legionnaires disease cause
microrgs. in AC
EMS cause
found in hlth food l-tryptophan
spain 1981
toxic oil syndrome
,similar to EMS
epid. surveillance process
informant >>>> local HD >>>>> state HD >>>>> CDC
usefulness of incidence
usefulness of prevalence
incidence=cause
prevalence=useful in assessing the societal impact of a disease and planning HC services
kingston newburgh study
fluoridation
, intervention study
physicians hlth study
aspirin, hd
beta-carotene, cancer
-intervention study
Polio vaccine study
-intervention
2 types of obs. studies
-descriptive>who, where, when
-analytical> how and why
name the two types of analytical studies
cohort and case control
3 ex.s of cohort studies
1. framingham heart study
2. doll and hill
3. hammond and horn
Framingham heart study
id risk factors for hd

-HBP, chol., smoking
-examined middle age pop. of framingham
-two years later examined again
-repeat every two years
-a COHORT study
Doll and Hill
-COHORT study
-brit. phys.s smoking and lung cancer
-used questionnaires and then death records
Hammond and horn
-Cohort study
-smoking and lung cancer in USA
-larger then doll and hill
-obtained smoking history monitored death
-confirmed and extended doll and hill
cohort study tells what
RR
-ratio of incidence of exposed versus incidence in unexposed
RR #s
formula = a(a+b)/c(c+d)
RR of 1.0 = no association
RR < 1.0 = decreased risk from exposure
RR > 1.0 = increased risk from exposure
2 examples of case-control studies
Reyes syndrome-salicylate use in infants
british breast cancer study -oral contraceptives and breast cancer
case control study
OR
Odds ratio
-ration of exposed to nonexposed cases/ ratio of exposed to nonexposed controls