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100 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
physical addiction:
a change in the body's chemistry so that without the presence of a substance (drug), normal functioning begins to fail, and with¬drawal symptoms set in; also called physical dependence
physical examination:
an examination of the body to gather information aboutits general condition or to make a diagnosis. It normally includes obser­vations by looking, listening, or feeling body parts and by medical test results
physician-assisted suicide: suicide
suicide of an ill person by way of lethal drugs or other means provided by a physician; not legal in most states.
physiological age
age as estimated from the body's health and probable life expectancy.
: chemicals in plant-based foods that are not nutrients but that have effects on the body.
pinch test:
an informal way of measuring body fatness.
: small, visible, white parasitic worms that commonly infect the intestines of young children
PKU (phenylketonuria):
a congenital disease causing severe brain damage with mental retardation if left untreated; now detected and treated at birth.
placebo effect:
effect: the healing effect that faith in medicine, even inert med­icine, often has.
placenta (plah-SEN-tah):
: an organ that develops during pregnancy; it permits exchange of materials between maternal and fetal blood
placental stage:
the final stage of childbirth, in which the placenta is expelled
mounds of fat, mixed with minerals, that build up along artery walls in atherosclerosis
tiny, disk-shaped bodies in the blood, important in blood clot formation.
a disease caused by a virus or bacterium that infects the lungs, with high fever, severe cough, and pain in the chest; especially dan­gerous to the very old or young.
poliomyelitis): a viral infection that produces mild respiratory or digestive symptoms in most cases but that may produce permanent paral­ysis or death; preventable by immunization
contamination of the environment with anything that impairs its ability to support life.
tumors that grow on a stem, resembling mushrooms. Polyps bleed easily, and some have the tendency to become malignant.
a type of unsaturated fat especially useful as a replacement for saturated fat in a heart-healthy diet.
positive self-talk:
the practice of making affirming statements about oneself to oneself, helpful in building self-esteem.
post-traumatic stress disorder:
disorder: a reaction to stress such as wartime suffering or rape, arising after the event is over.
postpartum depression:
the emotional depression a new mother or father experiences after the birth of an infant.
premature infant:
an infant born before the 38th week of gestation
premenstrual syndrome
(PMS): symptoms such as physical discom­fort, moodiness, and nervousness that occur in some women each month before menstruation.
regular payments made to an insurance company to cover the costs of unforeseen events such as medical emergencies.
prenatal care:
medical and health care provided during pregnancy
prepayment plan
a system of paying for health care in which the clients pay a fixed fee every month, regardless of how many services they receive
prescription drugs:
drugs legally available only with a physician's order.
problem drinker or alcohol abuser
a person who suffers social, emotional, family, job-related, or other problems because of alcohol. This person is on the way to alcoholism.
the onset of general symptoms common to many diseases, such as fever, sneezing, and coughing.
progressive muscle relaxation:
a technique of learning to relax by focusing on relaxing each of the body's muscle groups in turn
progressive overload principle:
: the training principle that a body system, in order to improve, must be worked at frequencies, intensities, or durations that increase over time.
a substance that assists in the development of malignant tumors, but does not initiate them on its own.
means 50 percent alcohol, 90 proof means 45 percent,
Protease inhibitors
drugs that stop the action of an enzyme which ordinarily helps HN to reproduce. The drugs help slow HIV reproduction, but takers run an increased risk of developing diabetes.
a class of nutrients that builds body tissues and supplies energy. Protein is made of amino acids. Referred to only in the singular,protein.
protozoa (PRO-toh-ZOH-ah):
tiny, animal-like cells, some of which can cause illnesses.
he brand name of one drug of a group of drugs used to restore normal brain chemistry in people with depression.
psilocybin (sill-oh-SI -bin), psilocin (sill-OH-sin
: two hallucinogens produced by a type of wild mushroom.
psychological addiction:
: a craving for something; mental dependence on a drug, habit, or behavior; also called psychological dependence.
the scientific study of behavior and the mind.
puberty (PYOO-ber-tee):
the period of life in which a person becomes physically capable of reproduction.
pubic lice:
a sexually transmitted disease caused by tiny parasites that breed in pubic hair and cause intense itching.
pulp cavity:
deepest chamber, which houses its blood vessels and nerves.
pulse rate:
the number of heartbeats per minute.
: a mixture of fluids and white blood cells that collects around infected areas.
a person authorized to act for another.
people pretending to have medical skills, and usually having products for sale.
quality time
time spent with another, of sufficient duration to allow a meaningful exchange of ideas.
small portion of any form of smokeless tobacco.
a viral disease of the central nervous system that causes paralysis and death.
radiation therapy:
the application of cell-destroying radiation to kill cancerous tissues.
a gas that arises from the earth where radioactive mate­rials are present
range of motion:
the mobility of a joint; the direction and the extent to which it bends.
a healthy third phase of the stress response, in which the body returns to normal.
recreational drug use:
drug use: a term made up, to describe their drug use, by people who claim their drug taking produces no harmful social or health effects; a term not defined by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA).
the last part of the digestive tract, through which stools are elim­inated
made of material that can be used over again.
refusal skills:
: a set of social strategies that enable people to competently resist the pressure by others to engage in dangerous or otherwise undesirable behaviors
: the opposite of the stress response; the normal state of the body.
relaxation response: the
(rapid eye movement pronounced as the syllable rem)
the periods of sleep in which a person is dreaming.
rapid eye movement pronounced as the syllable rem)
anger that has built up due to failure to express it.
. residency
: a length of time spent in a medical facility as part of the M.D. 's training after the internship.
a force that opposes another; in fitness, the weight or other opposing force against which muscles must work.
resistance: in stress,
the second phase of the stress response, in which the body mobilizes its resources to withstand the effects of the stress.
ripple effect:
the effect seen when a pebble is thrown into a pond and waves radiate out from it. The term is used to describe how one person's actions may affect many other people, and how their actions will affect still other people
. risk factors:
: factors linked with a disease by association but not yet proved to be causes.
: a viral disease that resembles measles but that lasts only a few days and does not cause serious complications, except in pregnancy; pre­ventable by immunization.
causing no undue harm; part of the legal requirement for a drug.
safer-sex strategies
behavior guidelines that reduce sexually transmit­ted disease risk, but that do not reduce the risk to zero.
a common food-borne pathogen causing digestive system infections ia many people each year.
a compound made of minerals that, in water, dissolve and form elec­trolytes.
sarcomas (
: cancers that arise in the connective tissue cells, including bones, ligaments, and muscles.
root bark from the sassafras tree, once used in beverages but now banned as an ingredient in foods or beverages because it contains cancer-causing chemicals.
concerning fats and health, those fats associated strongly with heart and artery disease; mainly fats from animal sources
. schizophrenia
: a mental illness, a condition of losing touch with reality accompanied by reduced ability to function.
: the skin's natural oil-actually a mixture of oils and waxes-that helps keep the skin and hair moist.
second opinion:
: a second assessment of a diagnosis and treatment plan by another health-care provider, usually on the request of a client, to double-check the validity of the original plan.
drugs that have a soothing or tranquilizing effect.
. sedentary:
that have a soothing or tranquilizing effect. sedentary: physically inactive (literally, "sitting down a lot"). self-actualization:
the reaching of one's full potential; the highest attainable state in Maslow's hierarchy of needs
person's belief in his or her ability to suc­ceed at the task at hand.
the value a person attaches to his or her self-image. Self­esteem is high in those who value themselves. It is a vitally important part of emotional health.
the characteristics that a person sees in himself or herself
a general term meaning weakness of mind and body occurring in old age.
a specific number of times to repeat a weight-training exercise.
: a general term used to mean both gender and sexual intercourse.
the quality of being sexual. Sexuality is part of the total person: physical, emotional, social, intellectual, and spiritual. Sexuality is part of who people are.
sexually transmitted diseases
diseases that are transmitted by way of direct sexual contact. An older name was venereal diseases.
shaken baby syndrome:
: a collection of symptoms resulting from vio­lent shaking of an infant or young child. It is the most common cause of mortality and long-term disability resulting from intentional head injury
. shame
the extreme feeling of guilt that arises when a person internalizes mistakes ("I am a bad person because 1 did it").
shin splints
damage to the muscles and connective tissues of the lower front leg from stress. Such damage usually heals with rest.
failure or disruption of the blood circulation, a life-threatening reaction to accidents and injuries.
sibling rivalry:
competition among sisters and brothers, often for the attention or affection of parents.
two or more people with one or more parents in common; broth­
side effects
ers or sisters.
sidestream smoke:
the smoke that escapes into the air from the burn­ing tip of a cigarette or cigar, or from burning pipe tobacco
single-parent family:
one parent and his or her natural or adopted children.
. sexual harassment:
: unwanted sexual attention, often from someone in power, that makes the victim feel uncomfortable or threatened.