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130 Cards in this Set

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enable:
: make possible. In addiction, enabling means "helping" by trying to "save" the addicted person from the consequences of the behavior. This makes possible continued alcohol or other drug abuse. An enabler is a per­son who actually does harm by supporting a troubled person's continued self-destructive attitude or behavior.
enabling
misguided "helping."
enamel
a tooth's tough outer layer
endorphins
chemicals in the brain that produce feelings of pleasure in response to a variety of activities.
energy:
the capacity to do work or produce heat.
environment:
everything "outside" the living organism-air, water, soil, other organisms, and forms of radiation.
environmental tobacco smoke (ETS):
: the combination of exhaled mainstream smoke and sidestream smoke that enters the air and may be inhaled by other people.
ephedrine:
: a stimulant added to look-alikes and diet pills, and found in herbs such as ma huang; has caused heart attacks, strokes, seizures, and death, especially when combined with caffeine.
epidemic (EP-ih-DEM-ick):
an infection that spreads rapidly through a population, affecting many people at the same time.
epinephrine (EP-uh-NEFF-rin):
one of the stress hormones; also called adrenaline.
episiotomy (eh-PEEZ-ee-OT-oh-me):
): a surgical cut made in the vagina during childbirth when the vagina cannot stretch enough without tearing to allow the baby to pass.
ergogenic (ER-go-JEN-ick):
a term that claims to mean "work¬enhancing." In fact, no products enhance the ability to do work
. essential amino acids
amino acids that are needed, but cannot be made by the body; they must be eaten in foods.
estrogen:
: a hormone that, in females, regulates the ovulatory cycle. ethanol (ethyl alcohol): see alcohol.
ethics:
moral principles or values.
euphoria (you-FORE-ee-uh):
): a sense of great well-being and pleasure brought on by some drugs; popularly called a high.
euthanasia (you-than-AY-zee-uh):
: allowing a person to die by choosing not to employ life-support equipment such as artificial respirators, or the removal of life-support equipment from a patient who has no hope of recov­ery. Both may be legal in some cases.
exercise physiology:
: the study of how the body works and changes in response to exercise. An exercise physiology laboratory has equipment to measure the components of fitness and to take other measurements.
exhaustion:
a harmful third phase of the stress response, in which stress exceeds the body's ability to recover.
expulsion stage
the stage of childbirth during which the uterine con­tractions push the infant through the birth canal.
extended family:
a family of parents, children, and other relatives, such as grandparents or aunts and uncles. The relatives may live in one household, or they may live close by and share responsibilities, such as childraising.
external pressures:
regarding sexual feelings, messages from society, peers, and others that pressure people to have sexual intercourse.
false labor:
warm-up contractions that many women experience before the birth process.
family:
: a group of people who are related by adoption, blood, or marriage, and are committed to each other; especially a father, mother, and their chil­dren. All blood relatives and ancestors of a family.
family identity:
a unique sense of belonging together as a unit, distinct and different from other people or groups.
fat:
a class of nutrients that does not mix with water. Fat is made mostly of fatty acids, which provide energy to the body. Technically referred to as lipids.
fatfold caliper
a pinching device that measures body fat under the skin.
. fatfold test:
a test of body fatness done with afatfold caliper.
fat-soluble (SOL-you-bul):
chemist's term meaning "able to dissolve in fat."
fatty acids:
simple forms of fat that supply energy fuel for most of the body's cells.
fee-for-service system
a system of paying for health care in which clients pay individual fees for the services they receive.
femininity:
traits, including biological and social traits, associated with being female
fertilization:
the joining of an ovum and a sperm.
fetal alcohol effect (FAE):
): a subtle version of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) , with hidden defects including learning disabilities, behavioral abnor­malities, and motor impairments.
fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS):
: a cluster of birth defects, including permanent mental and physical retardation and facial abnormalities, seen in children born to mothers who abuse alcohol during pregnancy.
fetus (FEET-us):
): the developing infant from the ninth week after concep­tion until birth.
feud:
a bitter, continuing hostility, often involving groups of people
fibrillation (FIH-brill-AY-shun):
: extremely rapid contractions of the heart that lack the power needed to pump blood around the body
. fight-or-flight reaction
the body's response to immediate physical dan­ger; the stress response. Energy is mobilized, either to mount an aggressive response against the danger, or to run away.
first aid:
literally, "help given first"-medical help given immediately in an emergency, before the victim is transported to a hospital or treat­ment center
fitness
: the characteristics of the body that enable it to perform physical activity, to meet routine physical demands with enough reserve energy to rise to sudden challenges, and to withstand stresses of all kinds
flexibility:
a component of fitness; the ability to bend the joints without injury.
flu:
flu: short for influenza
influenza (in-flew-EN-za),
highly contagious respiratory infection caused by any of a variety of viruses
folk medicine:
the use of herbs and other natural substances in the treat­ment of disease as practiced among people of various regions.
follicles:
vessel-like structures in the skin that contain the oil glands, the mus¬cles that control hair movement (and also goose bumps), and the roots of hairs.:
None
food chain:
n: the sequence in which living things depend on other living things for food. Algae are near the bottom and human beings at the top of the food chain.
formaldehyde:
: a substance related to alcohol. Formaldehyde is made by the body from alcohol and contributes to hangovers.
fossil fuel:
coal, oil, and natural gas, which all come from the fossilized remains of plant life of earlier times.
foster family:
a family formed when a government agency places a child in the temporary care of an adult or couple. The child's own parents may have died or for some reason cannot care for the child.
foxglove:
a plant that contains a substance used in the heart medicine digoxin
fracture:
a break in a bone. An open fracture is a break with a wound in the overlying tissues. A closed fracture is a break or crack with no visible wound.
free radicals:
: chemicals that harm the body's tissues by starting destruc­tive chain reactions in the molecules of the body's cells. Such reactions are believed to trigger or worsen some diseases.
frequency
the number of activity units per unit of time (for example, the number of exercise sessions per week).
frostbite:
the formation of ice crystals in body parts exposed to tempera­tures below freezing; freezing of body parts, especially toes and fingers, and nose and other face parts.
fungi:
living things that absorb and use nutrients of organisms they invade. Fungi that cause illnesses include yeasts and molds.
gangs:
peer groups that exist largely to express aggression against other groups.
gateway
a drug whose abuse is likely to lead to abuse of other, more potent and dangerous drugs. Alcohol, marijuana, and tobacco are most often named as gateway drugs.
gender identity:
that part of a person's self-image that is determined by the person's gender.
gender roles
roles assigned by society to people of each gender.
gender
the classification of being male or female.
generic (jeh-NEHR-ick)
the chemical names for drugs, as opposed to the brand names; the names everyone can use.
genes (JEENZ
the units of a cell's inheritance, which direct the making of equipment to do the cell's work.
genetic counselor:
: an advisor who predicts and advises on the likeli­hood that congenital defects will occur in a family.
genetic engineering:
a science of manipulating the genes of living things to instill some desirable trait not present in the original organism. An example is a tomato given a gene to delay its rotting.
genital herpes (HER-peez):
: a common, incurable sexually transmitted disease caused by a virus that produces blisters. The symptoms clear up on their own, but the virus remains to cause future outbreaks.
genital warts:
contagious wartlike growths on infected areas, caused by human papilloma viruses. Sometimes called condyloma (con-di-LOW-ma). The viruses that cause genital warts can also cause cervical cancer in women.
ginseng (JIN-seng):
a plant containing chemicals that have drug effects.
ginseng abuse syndrome:
a group of symptoms associated with the overuse of ginseng, including high blood pressure, insomnia, nervousness, confusion, and depression.
gland:
an organ of the body that secretes one or more hormones. global warming: warming of the planet, a trend that threatens life on earth.
glucose:
the body's blood sugar; a simple form of carbohydrate. glycogen: the form in which the liver and muscles store glucose
gonorrhea (gon-oh-REE-uh):
: a bacterial sexually transmitted disease that often advances without symptoms to spread though the body, causing problems in many organs.
grams (abbreviated g):
: units of weight in which many nutrients are mea­sured; 28 grams equals 1 ounce.
greenhouse effect:
the heat-trapping effect of the glass in a greenhouse. The same effect is caused by gases that are accumulating in the earth's outer atmosphere, which are trapping the sun's heat and warming the planet.
grieve:
to feel keen emotional pain and suffering over a loss.
guilt:
the normal feeling that arises from the conscience when a person acts against internal values ("I did a bad thing").
gum disease:
inflammation and degeneration of the pink tissue (gums) that is attached to the teeth and helps to hold them in place.
gynecologist:
: a specialist in the care of the female reproductive system.
hallucinations:
false perceptions; imagined sights, sounds, smells, or other feelings, sometimes brought on by drug abuse, sometimes by mental or physical illness.
hallucinogens (hal-LOO-sin-oh-jens
: drugs that cause visions and other sensory illusions.
head lice:
tiny, but visible, white parasitic insects that burrow into the skin or hairy body areas.
head restraints:
high seatbacks or other devices attached to seats in cars at head level. A head restraint prevents the person's head from snapping back too far when the body is thrown backward. This prevents neck and spinal cord injuries.
health:
a range of states with physical, mental, emotional, spiritual, and social components. At a minimum, health means freedom from physical disease, poor physical condition, social maladjustment, and other negative states. At a maximum, health means "wellness."
health-care system:
the total of all health-care providers and medical treat­ment facilities that work together to provide medical care to the population. health maintenance organization (HMO): a group of physicians who practice together and who treat people's health problems under a pre­payment plan.
heart attack:
the event in which vessels that feed the heart muscle become blocked, causing tissue death.
heart disease:
any disease of the heart muscle or other working parts of the heart.
heart murmur:
: a heart sound that reflects damaged or abnormal heart valves
heart transplant:
the surgical replacement of a diseased heart with a healthy one.
food chain:
n: the sequence in which living things depend on other living things for food. Algae are near the bottom and human beings at the top of the food chain.
formaldehyde:
: a substance related to alcohol. Formaldehyde is made by the body from alcohol and contributes to hangovers.
fossil fuel:
coal, oil, and natural gas, which all come from the fossilized remains of plant life of earlier times.
foster family:
a family formed when a government agency places a child in the temporary care of an adult or couple. The child's own parents may have died or for some reason cannot care for the child.
foxglove:
a plant that contains a substance used in the heart medicine digoxin
fracture:
a break in a bone. An open fracture is a break with a wound in the overlying tissues. A closed fracture is a break or crack with no visible wound.
free radicals:
: chemicals that harm the body's tissues by starting destruc­tive chain reactions in the molecules of the body's cells. Such reactions are believed to trigger or worsen some diseases.
frequency
the number of activity units per unit of time (for example, the number of exercise sessions per week).
frostbite:
the formation of ice crystals in body parts exposed to tempera­tures below freezing; freezing of body parts, especially toes and fingers, and nose and other face parts.
fungi:
living things that absorb and use nutrients of organisms they invade. Fungi that cause illnesses include yeasts and molds.
gangs:
peer groups that exist largely to express aggression against other groups.
gateway
a drug whose abuse is likely to lead to abuse of other, more potent and dangerous drugs. Alcohol, marijuana, and tobacco are most often named as gateway drugs.
gender identity:
that part of a person's self-image that is determined by the person's gender.
gender roles
roles assigned by society to people of each gender.
gender
the classification of being male or female.
generic (jeh-NEHR-ick)
the chemical names for drugs, as opposed to the brand names; the names everyone can use.
genes (JEENZ
the units of a cell's inheritance, which direct the making of equipment to do the cell's work.
genetic counselor:
: an advisor who predicts and advises on the likeli­hood that congenital defects will occur in a family.
genetic engineering:
a science of manipulating the genes of living things to instill some desirable trait not present in the original organism. An example is a tomato given a gene to delay its rotting.
genital herpes (HER-peez):
: a common, incurable sexually transmitted disease caused by a virus that produces blisters. The symptoms clear up on their own, but the virus remains to cause future outbreaks.
genital warts:
contagious wartlike growths on infected areas, caused by human papilloma viruses. Sometimes called condyloma (con-di-LOW-ma). The viruses that cause genital warts can also cause cervical cancer in women.
ginseng (JIN-seng):
a plant containing chemicals that have drug effects.
ginseng abuse syndrome:
a group of symptoms associated with the overuse of ginseng, including high blood pressure, insomnia, nervousness, confusion, and depression.
gland:
an organ of the body that secretes one or more hormones. global warming: warming of the planet, a trend that threatens life on earth.
glucose:
the body's blood sugar; a simple form of carbohydrate. glycogen: the form in which the liver and muscles store glucose
gonorrhea (gon-oh-REE-uh):
: a bacterial sexually transmitted disease that often advances without symptoms to spread though the body, causing problems in many organs.
grams (abbreviated g):
: units of weight in which many nutrients are mea­sured; 28 grams equals 1 ounce.
greenhouse effect:
the heat-trapping effect of the glass in a greenhouse. The same effect is caused by gases that are accumulating in the earth's outer atmosphere, which are trapping the sun's heat and warming the planet.
grieve:
to feel keen emotional pain and suffering over a loss.
guilt:
the normal feeling that arises from the conscience when a person acts against internal values ("I did a bad thing").
gum disease:
inflammation and degeneration of the pink tissue (gums) that is attached to the teeth and helps to hold them in place.
gynecologist:
: a specialist in the care of the female reproductive system.
hallucinations:
false perceptions; imagined sights, sounds, smells, or other feelings, sometimes brought on by drug abuse, sometimes by mental or physical illness.
hallucinogens (hal-LOO-sin-oh-jens
: drugs that cause visions and other sensory illusions.
head lice:
tiny, but visible, white parasitic insects that burrow into the skin or hairy body areas.
head restraints:
high seatbacks or other devices attached to seats in cars at head level. A head restraint prevents the person's head from snapping back too far when the body is thrown backward. This prevents neck and spinal cord injuries.
health:
a range of states with physical, mental, emotional, spiritual, and social components. At a minimum, health means freedom from physical disease, poor physical condition, social maladjustment, and other negative states. At a maximum, health means "wellness."
health-care system:
the total of all health-care providers and medical treat­ment facilities that work together to provide medical care to the population. health maintenance organization (HMO): a group of physicians who practice together and who treat people's health problems under a pre­payment plan.
heart attack:
the event in which vessels that feed the heart muscle become blocked, causing tissue death.
heart disease:
any disease of the heart muscle or other working parts of the heart.
heart murmur:
: a heart sound that reflects damaged or abnormal heart valves
heart transplant:
the surgical replacement of a diseased heart with a healthy one.