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103 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
: the product of the union of ovum and sperm, so termed for two weeks after conception. (After that, it is called an embryo.)
yeast infection, or candidiasis (can-did-EYE-a-sis):
: an infection caused by a yeast that multiplies out of control in the vagina; not a sexually trans­mitted disease.
one-celled fungi, some of which cause diseases.
visible parasites that burrow into the blood supplies of victims.
the physical symptoms that occur when a drug to which a person is addicted is cleared from the body tissues.
witch hazel:
: leaves or bark of a witch hazel tree; not proved to have heal­ing powers
: a person's intent, which leads to action.
a pimple filled with pus, caused by the plugging of oil-gland ducts with shed material from the duct lining.
. wellness:
maximum well-being; the top of the range of health states; the goal of the person who strives toward realizing his or her full potential phys­ically, mentally, emotionally, spiritually, and socially.
weight training:
exercise routines for strength conditioning that use weights or machines to provide resistance against which the muscles can work
able to dissolve in water.
voluntary activities
: movements of the body under the command of the conscious mind; one component of a person's daily energy expenditure.
essential nutrients that do not yield energy, but that are required for growth and proper functioning of the body.
organisms that contain only genetic material and protein coats, and that are totally dependent on the cells they infect.
violent crime
: a crime that involves threat or uses force, including assault, murder, rape, or robbery.
: brutal physical force intended to damage or injure another. violent crime: a crime that involves threat or uses force, including assault, murder, rape, or robbery.
vertebrae (VERT-eh-bray; singular, vertebra
the delicate, hollow bones of the spine.
the two lower chambers of the heart-the shipping areas that send blood on its way to the lungs or the tissues.
: the act of verbally venting one's feelings; letting off steam by talking, crying, swearing, or laughing
poison from a living creature, such as a snake or scorpion
blood vessels that carry waste-containing blood from the tissues back to the heart.
: people who omit meat, fish, and poultry from their diets. Some vegetarians also omit milk products and eggs.
changeable factors that affect outcomes.
flaps of tissue that open and close to allow the flow of blood in one direction only. The heart's valves are located at the entrances and exits of its chambers.
a person's set of rules for behavior; what the person thinks of as right and wrong, or sees as important.
: a drug made from altered microbes or their poisons injected or given by mouth to produce immunity.
. urine:
fluid wastes removed from the body by the kidneys.
urinary tract infections (UTIs):
bacterial infections of the urethra that can travel to the bladder and kidneys; not a sexually transmitted disease
upper respiratory infection
: an infection of the membranes of the nasal cavities, sinuses, throat, and trachea, but not involving the lungs.
: concerning fats and health, fats less associated with heart and artery disease; mainly fats from plant sources.
against the rules of right and wrong; not in line with accepted moral standards.
too little food energy or too few nutrients to prevent dis­ease or to promote growth; a form of malnutrition.
weight too low for health. Underweight is often defined as weight 10 percent or more below the appropriate weight for height.
umbilical (um-BIL-ih-cul) cord:
: the ropelike structure through which the fetus's veins and arteries extend to and from the placenta.
open sores in the lining of the digestive system.
maximum well-being; the top of the range of health states; the goal of the person who strives toward realizing his or her full potential phys­ically, mentally, emotionally, spiritually, and socially.
an abnormal mass of tissue that can live and reproduce itself, but performs no service to the body
trichomoniasis (trick-oh-mo-NEYE-uh-sis):
: a sexually transmitted dis­ease caused by a parasite that can cause bladder and urethral infections
"across the skin." In a drug delivery system, a drug is placed in contact with the skin by way of an adhesive patch. The drug is absorbed across the skin and into the bloodstream.
trace minerals
: minerals essential in nutrition, needed in small quanti­ties (traces) daily. Iron and zinc are examples.
toxic shock syndrome (1'88):
: a type of poisoning that can occur when bacteria break down menstrual blood; often associated with use of super­absorbent tampons
removal of the tonsils (in the throat), an operation some­times performed needlessly.
(TB): a bacterial infection of the lungs.
trace minerals:
minerals essential in nutrition, needed in small quanti­ties (traces) daily. Iron and zinc are examples
: a poison.
in relationships with others, accommodation and acceptance of differences between oneself and others; being tolerant of people's age, body shape, gender, disabilities, race, religion, views, and other differences. (Another meaning of tolerance has to do with the body's adaptation to med­icine and drugs, as defined in Chapter 11.)
systems of cells working together to perform special tasks.
tolerance: DRUG
: in drug use, a state that develops in users of certain drugs that makes larger and larger amounts of the drugs necessary to produce the same effect.
thymus gland
an organ of the immune system.
a stationary clot. When it has grown enough to close off a blood vessel, this dangerous event is a thrombosis.
thrill seekers:
people who are especially likely to take chances in exchange for momentary excitement.
those mental processes of which a person is always conscious.
treatment that heals.
terminal illnesses:
illnesses that are expected to end in death
: a disease caused by a toxin produced by bacteria deep within it wound
tennis elbow:
a painful condition of the arm and joint, usually caused by strain, as from poor form in playing tennis.
chemicals present in (among other things) tobacco. Burning tars release many carcinogens.
target heart rate:
the heartbeat rate that will condition a person's cardio­vascular system-fast enough to push the heart, but not so fast as to strain it tars: chemicals present in (among other things) tobacco. Burning tars release many carcinogens.
T cells:
lymphocytes that can recognize invaders that cause illness.
systolic (sis- TOL-ic) pressure:
the blood pressure during that part of the heartbeat when the heart's ventricles are contracted and the blood is being pushed out into the arteries.
a bacterial sexually transmitted disease that, if untreated, advances from a sore (chancre) to flulike symptoms, then through a long symptomless period, and later to a final stage of irreversible brain and nerve damage, ending in death
surgical insurance:
insurance to pay the surgeon's fees. See also Medicaid.
a term used to describe the use of resources at such a rate that the earth can keep on replacing them-for example, a rate of cutting trees no faster than new ones grow. Also, sustainable describes the produc­tion of pollutants at a rate that the environment or human cleanup efforts can handle, so that there is no net accumulation of pollution.
to hold back or restrain.
support system:
: a network of individuals or groups with which one iden­tifies and exchanges emotional support.
pill, powder, liquid, or the like containing only nutrients; not a food.
suntan lotion:
lotion that mayor may not have any sunscreen protection
a partial block against the cancer-causing rays of the sun (gamma radiation).
sun block:
: a total block against the cancer-causing rays of the sun. A sun block has an SPF (sun protection factor) of 50 or greater. Zinc oxide is an example of a sun block.
carbohydrates found both in food and in the body.
by an authority figure or when the drug produces a frightening hallucination.
sudden sniffing death syndrome
sudden death, usually from heart failure, in a person who is startled while abusing inhalants
sudden infant death syndrome (8108):
the unexpected and unex­plained death of an apparently well infant; the most common cause of death of infants between the second week and the end of the first year of life; also called crib death.
the shutting off of the blood flow to the brain by plaques, a clot, or hemorrhage.
stress response
the response to a demand or stressor. The stress response has three phases--alarm, resistance, and remvery or exhaustion
a demand placed on the body to adapt.
stress hormones:
a demand placed on the body to adapt.
stress fractures
: bone damage from repeated physical force that strains the place where ligament is attached to bone.
stress eating
eating in response to stress, an inappropriate activity
: the effect of physical and psychological demands (stressors) on a person. Stress that provides a welcome challenge is eustress ("good" stress, pronounced YOU-stress); stress that is perceived as negative is distress ( "bad" stress
stranger rape:
sexual assault by a stranger. Also called street rape.
any of a wide variety of drugs, including amphetamines, caf­feine, and others, that speed up the central nervous system
: hormones of a certain chemical type that occur naturally in the body, some of which promote muscle growth. Available as drugs, they are abused by athletes seeking a shortcut to large muscles.
fixed pictures of how everyone in a group is thought to be; ideas that do not recognize anyone's individuality.
people who marry into a family after a biological parent departs through death or divorce.
step aerobics:
aerobic activity in which each participant steps up and down on a stable platform called a step bench ranging from about 6 inches to 12 inches high
a person's standing or rank in relation to others, many times falsely based on wealth, power, or influence. While desirable to many, these char­acteristics do not define human worth.
spouse abuse:
vernal, psychological, physical, or sexual assault on a spouse.
a calbohydrate, the main food energy source for human beings
spontaneous abortion, or miscarriage
: the expelling of a zygote, embryo, or fetus from the uterus, not induced by medical means.
: a stick or board used to support a broken bone to keep its separated parts from moving until it can be set.
the stack of 33 vertebrae that form the backbone and hold the spinal cord, whose nerves enter and exit through spaces between the bones
spina (SPY-nah or SPEE-nah) bifida (BIFF-ih-duh
: a birth defect often involving gaps in the bones of the spine, leaving the spinal cord unprotected in those spots. The cord may bulge and protrude through the gaps in the spinal column.
the compound nonoxynol-9, intended for birth control, that also kills or weakens some STD organisms.
the male cells of reproduction.
a physician with training in a specialty area beyond the med­ical degree requirements.
social drinker:
a person who drinks only on social occasions. Depending on how alcohol affects the person's life, the person may be a moderate drinker or a problem drinker.
free of alcohol's effects and of addiction; not drunk.
smokeless tobacco:
tobacco used for snuff or chewing rather than for smoking.
a severe viral infection with skin eruptions; once often fatal, it is now believed to be wiped out world wide, thanks to immunizations.
smaIl for date:
a term used to describe an infant underdeveloped for its age, often because of malnutrition of the mother.
spaces in the bones of the skull.