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120 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Types of Neurons
Sensory: Carry information coming from the environment.
Motor: Transmit instructions to the muscles and glands of the body.
Interneurons: Transmit signals from one neuron to another.
Basic Anatomy of a Neuron
Axon: Conducts its signal/ its neural impulse.
Dendrite: receive stimulation from other cells
Cell Body: contains the nucleus and metabolic mechanism of the cell.
Synapse
Neurotransmitter
Synapse: the junction between the axon and adjoining dendrite.
Neurotransmitter: chemical messengers crossing the synaptic cleft and binding to receptor sites on the receiving neuron’s dendrite; unlock channels for charged atoms to flow into neuron alerting its readiness to generate a neural impulse.
Somatic vs. Autosomatic
Somatic vs. Autonomic Nervous System: Voluntary; nerves that carry messages from the eyes, ears, and other sense organs to the CNS to muscles and glands / nerves that link the CNS with the heart, intestines, and other internal organs.
Sympathetic vs. Parasympathetic Nervous System:
Consists of groupings of neuron cell bodies/ganglia along spinal cord connecting to internal organs; fight or flight; not closely linked ganglia and act independently; opposite effects.
Brain stem
oldest and most central region (medulla, pons, reticular formation)
Medulla
brainstem region controlling heartbeat and breathing.
Reticular formation
network of neurons from brainstem involved in alertness and arousal.
Thalamus
brain’s sensory switchboard; located on top of brainstem routing messages to the cerebral cortex.
Cerebellum
located at the rear; coordinates voluntary movement and balance.
Amygdala
two clusters of neurons in the limbic system that are linked to emotion esp. aggression.
Hypothalamus
below thalamus; influences endocrine sys. via the pituitary gland.
Parietal Lobe
Sensory Cortex
Center of the cortex receiving visual info from skin and body.
Sensory Cortex: On the edge of the frontal lobe in parietal; processes sensations.
Temporal Lobe
Frontal Lobe
1) Auditory info from ear projects here.
2) Behind forehead involved in reasoning, planning and controlling body movement.
Motor Cortex
Back of frontal lobes in front of sensory cortex; vol. movements.
Pituitary
master; controlled by hypothal; rel. hormones to act on other glands.
Hypothalamus
controls pit. Func. Secretes CRH to ant. Pit. To secrete ACTH to cause adrenal cortex to release cortisol into bloodstream.
Adrenal Glands
above kidneys; secrete epine, norep, cortisol, arousal hormones
Thyroid
produces hormone thyroxine to help regulate growth and metabolism.
Pancreas
produces glucagons and insulin acting in opposition to reg.the level of sugar glucose in the blood; glucagons raises concentration
Veins
Return blood from capillaries to heart.
Antigen
Foreign substance stim. an immune response.
Lymph
colorless fluid formed by water, proteins, microbes, and other foreign substances drained from between cells.
Lymphocytes
white blood cells circulated by lymph; produced in bone marrow; search body for antigens. Expand during an immune resp – swelling.
Lymph Nodes
contain filters that capture infectious substances and debris; as lymph passes through the lymphocytes destroy foreign particles
Thymus
secretes thymosin for controlling maturation and devel. of lymphocytes.
Phagocytes
large scavenger cells searching for antigens in blood and tissues; digest antigens.
Macrophages
phagocytes at site of infection an lymph nodes, spleen, and lungs; hunt antigens and wornout cells.
Histamine
Natural Killer Cells
1) increases blood flow to wound.
2) Nk; smaller lymphocytes patrolling for Diseasesd cells gone awry; secrete interferon.
B-Cells
lymphocyte; attack foreign substances by globulins to suppress toxic effects)
Pituitary
master; controlled by hypothal; rel. hormones to act on other glands.
Hypothalamus
controls pit. Func. Secretes CRH to ant. Pit. To secrete ACTH to cause adrenal cortex to release cortisol into bloodstream.
Adrenal Glands
above kidneys; secrete epine, norep, cortisol, arousal hormones
Thyroid
produces hormone thyroxine to help regulate growth and metabolism.
Pancreas
produces glucagons and insulin acting in opposition to reg.the level of sugar glucose in the blood; glucagons raises concentration
Veins
Return blood from capillaries to heart.
Antigen
Foreign substance stim. an immune response.
Pituitary
master; controlled by hypothal; rel. hormones to act on other glands.
Lymph
colorless fluid formed by water, proteins, microbes, and other foreign substances drained from between cells.
Hypothalamus
controls pit. Func. Secretes CRH to ant. Pit. To secrete ACTH to cause adrenal cortex to release cortisol into bloodstream.
Lymphocytes
white blood cells circulated by lymph; produced in bone marrow; search body for antigens. Expand during an immune resp – swelling.
Adrenal Glands
above kidneys; secrete epine, norep, cortisol, arousal hormones
Lymph Nodes
contain filters that capture infectious substances and debris; as lymph passes through the lymphocytes destroy foreign particles
Thyroid
produces hormone thyroxine to help regulate growth and metabolism.
Pancreas
produces glucagons and insulin acting in opposition to reg.the level of sugar glucose in the blood; glucagons raises concentration
Thymus
secretes thymosin for controlling maturation and devel. of lymphocytes.
Veins
Return blood from capillaries to heart.
Phagocytes
large scavenger cells searching for antigens in blood and tissues; digest antigens.
Antigen
Foreign substance stim. an immune response.
Macrophages
phagocytes at site of infection an lymph nodes, spleen, and lungs; hunt antigens and wornout cells.
Lymph
colorless fluid formed by water, proteins, microbes, and other foreign substances drained from between cells.
Natural Killer Cells
1) increases blood flow to wound.
2) Nk; smaller lymphocytes patrolling for Diseasesd cells gone awry; secrete interferon.
Lymphocytes
white blood cells circulated by lymph; produced in bone marrow; search body for antigens. Expand during an immune resp – swelling.
B-Cells
lymphocyte; attack foreign substances by globulins to suppress toxic effects)
Lymph Nodes
contain filters that capture infectious substances and debris; as lymph passes through the lymphocytes destroy foreign particles
Thymus
secretes thymosin for controlling maturation and devel. of lymphocytes.
Phagocytes
large scavenger cells searching for antigens in blood and tissues; digest antigens.
Macrophages
phagocytes at site of infection an lymph nodes, spleen, and lungs; hunt antigens and wornout cells.
Natural Killer Cells
1) increases blood flow to wound.
2) Nk; smaller lymphocytes patrolling for Diseasesd cells gone awry; secrete interferon.
B-Cells
lymphocyte; attack foreign substances by globulins to suppress toxic effects)
Pituitary
master; controlled by hypothal; rel. hormones to act on other glands.
Hypothalamus
controls pit. Func. Secretes CRH to ant. Pit. To secrete ACTH to cause adrenal cortex to release cortisol into bloodstream.
Adrenal Glands
above kidneys; secrete epine, norep, cortisol, arousal hormones
Thyroid
produces hormone thyroxine to help regulate growth and metabolism.
Pancreas
produces glucagons and insulin acting in opposition to reg.the level of sugar glucose in the blood; glucagons raises concentration
Veins
Return blood from capillaries to heart.
Antigen
Foreign substance stim. an immune response.
Lymph
colorless fluid formed by water, proteins, microbes, and other foreign substances drained from between cells.
Lymphocytes
white blood cells circulated by lymph; produced in bone marrow; search body for antigens. Expand during an immune resp – swelling.
Lymph Nodes
contain filters that capture infectious substances and debris; as lymph passes through the lymphocytes destroy foreign particles
Thymus
secretes thymosin for controlling maturation and devel. of lymphocytes.
Phagocytes
large scavenger cells searching for antigens in blood and tissues; digest antigens.
Macrophages
phagocytes at site of infection an lymph nodes, spleen, and lungs; hunt antigens and wornout cells.
Natural Killer Cells
1) increases blood flow to wound.
2) Nk; smaller lymphocytes patrolling for Diseasesd cells gone awry; secrete interferon.
B-Cells
lymphocyte; attack foreign substances by globulins to suppress toxic effects)
Pituitary
master; controlled by hypothal; rel. hormones to act on other glands.
Hypothalamus
controls pit. Func. Secretes CRH to ant. Pit. To secrete ACTH to cause adrenal cortex to release cortisol into bloodstream.
Adrenal Glands
above kidneys; secrete epine, norep, cortisol, arousal hormones
Pituitary
master; controlled by hypothal; rel. hormones to act on other glands.
Thyroid
produces hormone thyroxine to help regulate growth and metabolism.
Pancreas
produces glucagons and insulin acting in opposition to reg.the level of sugar glucose in the blood; glucagons raises concentration
Hypothalamus
controls pit. Func. Secretes CRH to ant. Pit. To secrete ACTH to cause adrenal cortex to release cortisol into bloodstream.
Adrenal Glands
above kidneys; secrete epine, norep, cortisol, arousal hormones
Veins
Return blood from capillaries to heart.
Thyroid
produces hormone thyroxine to help regulate growth and metabolism.
Antigen
Foreign substance stim. an immune response.
Pancreas
produces glucagons and insulin acting in opposition to reg.the level of sugar glucose in the blood; glucagons raises concentration
Veins
Return blood from capillaries to heart.
Lymph
colorless fluid formed by water, proteins, microbes, and other foreign substances drained from between cells.
Antigen
Foreign substance stim. an immune response.
Lymphocytes
white blood cells circulated by lymph; produced in bone marrow; search body for antigens. Expand during an immune resp – swelling.
Lymph
colorless fluid formed by water, proteins, microbes, and other foreign substances drained from between cells.
Lymph Nodes
contain filters that capture infectious substances and debris; as lymph passes through the lymphocytes destroy foreign particles
Lymphocytes
white blood cells circulated by lymph; produced in bone marrow; search body for antigens. Expand during an immune resp – swelling.
Thymus
secretes thymosin for controlling maturation and devel. of lymphocytes.
Lymph Nodes
contain filters that capture infectious substances and debris; as lymph passes through the lymphocytes destroy foreign particles
Phagocytes
large scavenger cells searching for antigens in blood and tissues; digest antigens.
Thymus
secretes thymosin for controlling maturation and devel. of lymphocytes.
Macrophages
phagocytes at site of infection an lymph nodes, spleen, and lungs; hunt antigens and wornout cells.
Phagocytes
large scavenger cells searching for antigens in blood and tissues; digest antigens.
Natural Killer Cells
1) increases blood flow to wound.
2) Nk; smaller lymphocytes patrolling for Diseasesd cells gone awry; secrete interferon.
Macrophages
phagocytes at site of infection an lymph nodes, spleen, and lungs; hunt antigens and wornout cells.
B-Cells
lymphocyte; attack foreign substances by globulins to suppress toxic effects)
Natural Killer Cells
1) increases blood flow to wound.
2) Nk; smaller lymphocytes patrolling for Diseasesd cells gone awry; secrete interferon.
B-Cells
lymphocyte; attack foreign substances by globulins to suppress toxic effects)
Pituitary
master; controlled by hypothal; rel. hormones to act on other glands.
Hypothalamus
controls pit. Func. Secretes CRH to ant. Pit. To secrete ACTH to cause adrenal cortex to release cortisol into bloodstream.
Adrenal Glands
above kidneys; secrete epine, norep, cortisol, arousal hormones
Thyroid
produces hormone thyroxine to help regulate growth and metabolism.
Pancreas
produces glucagons and insulin acting in opposition to reg.the level of sugar glucose in the blood; glucagons raises concentration
Veins
Return blood from capillaries to heart.
Antigen
Foreign substance stim. an immune response.
Lymph
colorless fluid formed by water, proteins, microbes, and other foreign substances drained from between cells.
Lymphocytes
white blood cells circulated by lymph; produced in bone marrow; search body for antigens. Expand during an immune resp – swelling.
Lymph Nodes
contain filters that capture infectious substances and debris; as lymph passes through the lymphocytes destroy foreign particles
Thymus
secretes thymosin for controlling maturation and devel. of lymphocytes.
Phagocytes
large scavenger cells searching for antigens in blood and tissues; digest antigens.
Macrophages
phagocytes at site of infection an lymph nodes, spleen, and lungs; hunt antigens and wornout cells.
Natural Killer Cells
1) increases blood flow to wound.
2) Nk; smaller lymphocytes patrolling for Diseasesd cells gone awry; secrete interferon.
B-Cells
lymphocyte; attack foreign substances by globulins to suppress toxic effects)