Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/55

Click to flip

55 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
structure
an anatomical obect that provides form and shape
function
job/purpose
superior view
lateral view
medial
anterior
posterior
proximal
distal
above
below
to the side
towards center of body
from front
back
close
distant
epiphysis
endpoints of long bone
diaphysis
middle section (between epiphysis) of long bone
periosteum
sheath surrounding the insides of the long bone; life support proving blood for bone cells
compact bone
dense bone found in the diaphysis
hinge joint
ball and socket
gliding
saddle
elbow/knee
shoulder/hit

wrist?
axial skeleton
central portion of body including the spine and ribs
appendicular skeleton
skeleton including the arms and shoulder
cartilage
articular cartilage is the only evidence remaining of bone devlopment
smooth muscle
organs: liver
cardiac muscle
heart
skeletal muscle
muscle that allows voluntary movements by moving the bones
contraction
the shortening and thickening of functioning muscle or muscle fiber
tendon
soft tissues that anchor mucles to bones
ligament
strong, fibrous tissue which attaches one bone to another
nutrients
elements in foods that are required for the energy, growth, and repair of tissues and regulation of body processes
calories
units of heat (energy); specifically, one calorie equals he amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 gram of water by 1 deg. Celsius
carbohydrates
chemica coumpounds composed of sugar units; the body's primary source of energy
satiety
the food's ability to cause a feeling of fullness
Saturated fats
fats that promote cholesterol formtaion; they are in solid form at room temperature; primarily animal fats
cholesterol
a primary form of fat found in blood; lipid material manufactered within the body and derived from dietary sources
proteins
compounds composed of chians of amino acids; the primary components of muscle and connective tissue
amino acids
chief componentns of protein; can be manufactured by body or obtained from dietary sources
vitamins
organic compounds hat facilitate the action of enzymes
minerals
trace elements present in very small amounts in the body; micronutrient elements like oron, copper, or salts
water
the forgotten nutrient;
dehydration can be fatal w/o
caloric balance
caloric intake greater than caloric expenditure
body image
our subjective perception of how our body appears
overweight
condition where a person's excess fat accumulation results in body weight that exceeds desirable weight (by height/weight charts) by 1% - 19%
obesity
condittion where person's excess fat accumulation results in body weight that excees desirable weight (by height/weight charts) by 20% or more
body mass index (BMI)
a mathematical calculation based on weight and height; used to determine desirable body weight
basal metabolic rate (BMR)
the amount of energy, expressed in calories, that hte body requires to maintain basic functions
thermic effect of food (TEF)
amount of energy our bodies require for the digestion, absorption, and transportation of food
anorexia nervosa
an eating disorder in which the individual weighs less than 85% of their expected weight for his/her age, gender and heigh. has intense fear of gaining weight; (females' menstruation ceases for at least 3 consecutive months) perceive themselves as overweight, even when underweight
bulimia nervosa
an eating disorder in which individuals engage in episodes of bingeing, consuming unusually large amounts of food and feeling out of control, and engaging in some compenensatory purging behavior to eliminate food
set point theory
genetically programmed range of body weight beyond which a person finds it difficult to gain or lose additional weight
fiber
chinas of carbohydrates that are indigestible by human digestive tract
stress
the physiological and psychological state of disruption caused by the presence of an unanticipated, disruptive, or stimulating event
general adaptation syndrom (GAS)
sequenced physiological responses to the the presence of a stressor, involving the alarm, resistance, and exhaustion stages of the stress response
distress
stress that diminishes quality of life; commonly associated with disease and illness
eustress
stress that enhances the quality of life
stress response
the phys. and psych. responses to positive or negative events that are disruptive, unexpected, or stimulating
fight or flight response
phs. response to a stressor that prepares the body for confrontation or avoidance
chronic stress
refers to remaining at high level of phs. arousal for an extended period of time; can also occur when an individual is not able to immediately react to a real or perceived threat
alarm stage (1)
1st stage of stress response involving phs. involuntary changes whcih are controlled by the hormonal and nervous system; fight or flight response is activated
resistance stage
2nd stage where th e body attempts to reestablish its equilibrium or internal balance
exhaustion stage
third stage and the point where the phys and psyc resources used to deal with stress has been depleted
stressors
facrots/events, real/imaged, that elecit a state of stress
deep breathing
relaxes muscles
progessive muscle relaxation (PMR)
learning to recognize difference between contracted and relaxed muscles, in order to gain sense of control over body and stress response
guided imagery
involves having someone describe scene while focusing on taking deep comfortable breaths.
acute stress
severe stress
episodic stress
stress that comes in short periods of time