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108 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
maximum heart rate
220 - age
calculating target heart rate- lower and upper limits
65 & 90% of maximum heart rate
7 Traits of the Healthiest People
1- eat 3 meals/day
2- control weight gain
3- eat breakfast
4- sleep 7/8 continuously
5- not smoking
6- alcohol in moderation
7- exercise 3 times/ week
9 steps of blood flow through heart and body
1) vein returns
2)right atrium
3)right ventricle
4) pulmonary arteries
5)left and right lungs
6) pulmonary vein
7)left atrium
8)left ventricle
9)aortic arch- arteries
power heart
(vs. healthy heart)
heart has thick walls and less volume than a healthy heart. It comes from not breathing during weight training
valsalva
breathing
formula for strength weight training
80%+ weight, 2-3 sets, 8-10 reps
3-5 days/week
formula for power weight training
moderte weigh 50-70%, 2-3 sets, 8-15 reps
3-5 days/week
formula for circuit training weight training
light weight 50-70%, 3-5 sets, 15+ reps
3-5 days/week
Five Components to health and physical fitness
1) cardiovascular
2) body composition
3) muscle endurance
4) muscle strength
5) flexibility
3 types of muscles
skeletal, smooth, cardio
4 Types of Cardiovascular Disease
1) Coronary Heart Disease
2) Cerebrovascular Disease
3) Congestive Heart Failure
4) Peripheral Vascular Disease
Coronary Heart Disease
caused by saturated fats, build-up of plaque, affects the heart muscle, athrosclyrosis
Cerebrovascular Disease
blood clot, stroke
Congestive Heart Failure
failure of heart muscle to pump as much blood as it receives. Fluid builds up around heart muscle, heart wears out and breaks down
Peripheral Vascular Disease
plaque builds up in blood vessels. Lack of circulation can require amputation.
optimal body composition for men and women
men 14-25%
women 21-29%
body composition that leads to increased health risk for men and women
men > 20%
women > 30%
stroke volume
amount of blood pumps every beat
2 benefits of exercise with respect to stroke volume
-ventricle size increases so your bklood pumps more blood per beat
-heart muscle becomes stronger and contracts harder pumping more blood
cardiac output
amount of blood your heart pumps in one minute
cardiac output at a heart at rest and maximum output for athletes
5 L --> 30 L
overload
for cells to increase in size or structure theymust be stressed at their present upper limit of response
Karvonen
positive adaptation takes place at and above 60%
specificity
training must be specific to cells, functions, or strutures that you want to be changed
reversability
the affects of training are dependent on continued training and a secession of training results in gradual decline of performance capacity of adopted cells
3 Factors that Relateto Adaptation
overload
specificity
reversability
7 Factors of Heart Disease
1) elevated blood cholesterol
2) hypertension
3) cigarette smoking
4) diabetis
5) sedentary lifestyle
6) family history
7)age
3 types of fuel for exercise
carbohydrates
fats
protein
type of fuel used for exercise that is shorter in duration
carbs
type of fuel used in exercise that it longer in duration
fats
sarcomere
muscle cell
how muscles contract
inward
two types of muscle contractions
concentric- come together, get shorter
ecentric- get longer
HDL what it is and how much you should have and influence of exercise
protein, helps eliminate plaque
should be greater than 50
increases with exercise
LD what it is, how much you should have
a protein, causes plaque build-up
should be less than 100
ratio of HDL to cholesterol should be
less than 3.5
triglycorides: what are they and how many should you have
fats, should be below 130
cholesterol should be
less than 200, preferably less than 180
blood lipid content for males and females
women- TC:HDL < 3.5
mwn- < 4.5
blood pressure: names for top and bottom figures
top: systolic Blood pressure
bottom: diastolic blood pressure
blood pressure hypertension level
139/89
athrosclorosis
plaque build-up
prescription for cardiovascular exercise
large muscle activity
high intensity, minimum 30 minutes, minimum 3 times/week
prescription for exercise with goal of weight loss
large muscle activity
lower intensity, minimum 45 minutes, 6 times/wekek
Huxley
sliding filament theory
characteristics of slow-twitch fibers
slkow in using oxygen, high mylgoben (red blood cell), more capillaries, high oxidative capactiy (can store lots), fatigue resistant, high endurance level, not strength oreinted
characteristics of fast-twitch fibers
fast glycolytic (burn glycogen quickly), gewer capillaries, fatigue quickly, high glyogen capactiy (can store lots), strength, power, quickness
lactic acid
when it is made
when converting food to energy lactic acid is produced and is eliminated when muscles recover. oxygen is used in this recovery, produced in anaerobic system
anearobic exercise
what it is
type of fuel
high intensity for a short time, doesn't use oxygen, uses carbs
% of fat in recommended diet
30%
only 10% from saturated fats
% of carbs in recommended diet
60%
50% complex
10% refined and processed sugars
% of protein in recommended diet
10%
3 parts of grain and the two removed in refined grain products
bran, germ, endosperm
bran and germ are removed in refined foods
calories in 1 gram fat
9 calories
calories in 1 gram protein
5 calories
calories in 1 gram carbs
4-5 calories
3 power points of nutritional label
fiber, fats; saturated + unsaturated, simple sugars
grain group
6-11 servings
complex carbs
fruit group
2-4 servings
fresh v. canned and preserved
milk group
2-3 servings
high saturated fats
meat group
2-3 servings
high saturated fats
vegetable group
3-5 servings
cooked and overcooked
fats and oils group
eat sparingly
number of amino acids
number of essential amino acids
22
8
function of protein
build, repair, and regulate functions of body's cells
complete proteins
contain all 8 essential amino acids in the ration needed
sources of complete protein
animal foods, soybeans, and complimentary proteins
functions of fats
energy, component of cellular membranes, myelin sheath covering nerves, constituent of hormones, protects organs, transport molecules, facilitates absorption of fat-soluble vtamins
saturated v unsaturated fats
saturated- from animals and solidify @ room temperature
unsaturated- from plants and remain liquid at room temperature
water soluble vitamins
B and C
fat-soluble vitamins
A, D, E, and K
Elements of B comples
thiamikn (b1)
niacin
riboflavin (b2)
B12, B6
pantothenic Acid
function of vitamin B
aid in metabolism of carbs, fats, and proteins
nervous system function
synthesis of red blood cells
source of Vitamin B
meat, poultry, fish, nuts, milk, dark green leaves, fortified cereals
function of Vitamin C
bodyguard to cancer, collagen synthesis, anti-oxidant, strengthens blood vessels, aids in healing, increases resistance to infection, aids in absorption of iron and calcium
source of vitamin c
citrus fruits, peppers, strawberries, meons
function of vitamin a
skin and vision
source of vitamin a
carrots, sweet potatoes
function of vitamin d
absorption of calcium, strong bones and teeth
source of vitamin d
sunlight, milk products
function of vitamin e
antioxidant, positively impacs heart disease, healthy arteries
sources of vitamine e
dark greens, vegetable oil
anti-oxidants
reduce activity of molecules that attack cells, sacrifices its own body
function of vitamin K
normal blood clotting
sources of vitamin K
dark green veggies, cereals
stress
the non-specific response of the body to any demand placed upon it
stressor
one event or condition that triggers the body to respond
three levels of stress
1) stressor
2) response
3) management
distress
stress that tears you down
hormones associated with stress
catechoamines
glucourtuoide-blood glucose distributed in body
general characteristics of stress, triggered by catechoamiknes
increase in blood pressure + heart rate, blood vessels dialate, heart muscle dialates, increase stroke volume, decrease f skin temperature,corebody temperature increases, increase muscle strength, decrese in immune system of body
methods of relaxation
meditation
bio-feedback; instrumentality
progressive muscle relaxation
aerobic exercisekkkk
selye associated with
stress
daily fiber intake
35 grams/day
trans-fat
human-created fat, increases LDL cholesterol, hydrogen added to unsaturated fat to make trans-fat
peak health should occur at
age 30
color of slow-oxidative
red
color of fast glycolytic
white
hildebrand
muscle group contractions
arterioles
smooth muscle
6 essential nutrients for optimal health
1-carbs
2-fats
3-protein
4-vitamins
5-minerals
6-water
diseases associated with complex carbohydrates
diverticulary disease
colon cancer
obesity
minimum calories
male 1200
female 1000
considerations for weith loss or control
-use food groups for diet plan
-reduce intake of fats, simple sugars
-fat is fatter than carbohydrates
-exercise is a must
-low calorie diets don't workk
three types of carbs
Simple:
disacharides
monosacharides
Complex:
polysacharides
insoluble fiber
cellulose- absorb H2O- beans, grains, vegetables
soluble fiber
pectins substance, fruits, slows food, increases stickiness, helps lower blood cholesterol