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53 Cards in this Set

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Abnormal, uncontrolled cellular growth.
cancer
A tumor that is cancerous and capable of spreading.
malignant tumor
A tumor that is not cancerous.
benign tumor
A system of vessels that returns proteins, lipids, and other substances from fluid in the tissues to the circulatory system.
lymphatic system
The removal and examination of a small piece of body tissue; a needle biopsy uses a needle to remove a small sample; some biopsies require surgery.
biopsy
The spread of cancer cells from one part of the body to another.
metastasis
Cancer that originates in epithelial tissue (skin, glands, and lining of internal organs).
carcinoma
A layer of tissue that covers a surface or lines a tube or cavity of the body, enclosing and protecting other parts of the body.
epithelial layer
Cancer arising from bone, cartilage, or striated muscle.
sarcoma
A tumor originating from lymphatic tissue.
lymphoma
Cancer of the blood or the blood-forming cells.
leukemia
Soft vascular tissue in the interior cavities of bones that produces blood cells.
bone marrow
A specialist in the study of tumors.
oncologist
Any substance that causes cancer.
carcinogen
The treatment of cancer with chemicals that selectively destroy cancerous cells.
chemotherapy
A period during the course of cancer in which there are no symptoms or other evidence of disease.
remission
A small, usually harmless mass of tissue that projects from the inner surface of the colon or rectum.
polyp
Low-dose x-rays of the breasts used to check for early signs of breast cancer
mammograms
An imaging method in which sound waves are bounced off body structures to create an image on a TV monitor; also called ultrasound.
ultrasonography
A diagnostic test for prostate cancer that measures blood levels of prostate-specific antigen (PSA).
PSA blood test
The inability to control the flow of urine.
incontinence
The inability to have an erection or ejaculate; an inability to perform sexual intercourse.
impotence
A scraping of cells from the cervix for examination under a microscope to detect cancer.
Pap test
The layers of tissue lining the uterus.
endometrium
A malignant tumor of the skin that arises from pigmented cells, usually a mole.
melanoma
Light rays of a specific wavelength emitted by the sun; most UV rays are blocked by the ozone layer in the upper atmosphere.
ultraviolet (UV) radiation
Cancer of the deepest layers of the skin.
basal cell carcinoma
Cancer of the surface layers of the skin.
squamous cell carcinoma
A substance used to protect the skin from UV rays; usually applied as an ointment or a cream.
sunscreen
The threadlike bodies in a cell nucleus that contain molecules of DNA; most human cells contain 23 pairs of chromosomes.
chromosomes
Deoxyribonucleic acid, a chemical substance that carries genetic information.
DNA
A section of a chromosome that contains the nucleotide base sequence for making a particular protein; the basic unit of heredity.
gene
Any environmental factor that can cause mutation, such as radiation and atmospheric chemicals.
mutagen
A gene involved in the transformation of a normal cell into a cancer cell
oncogene
A type of oncogene that normally functions to restrain cellular growth
tumor suppressor gene
Genetically programmed cell death, in which the cell undergoes shrinkage, condensation of the nucleus, and fragmentation. Many cancer cells lose their ability to respond to the normal apoptosis triggers, such as DNA damage.
apoptosis
An agent that destroys or otherwise blocks the action of carcinogens.
anticarcinogen
Any of a group of yellow-to-red plant pigments that can be converted to vitamin A by the liver; many act as antioxidants or have other anti-cancer effects. It includes beta-carotene, lutein, lycopene, and zeaxanthin.
carotenoid
A substance that can lessen the breakdown of food or body constituents; actions include binding oxygen and donating electrons to free radicals.
antioxidant
Electron-seeking compounds that can react with fats, proteins, and DNA, damaging cell membranes and mutating genes in their search for electrons; produced through chemical reactions in the body and by exposure to environmental factors such as sunlight and tobacco smoke
free radicals .
A naturally occurring substance found in plant foods that may help prevent chronic diseases such as cancer and heart disease; phyto means "plant."
phytochemical
A compound found in cruciferous vegetables that can turn on the body's detoxifying enzyme system.
sulforaphane
A carcinogen made in the stomach from nitrates and nitrites.
nitrosamine
The use of chemotherapy before surgery to shrink a cancerous tumor and prevent metastasis; sometimes eliminates the need for radical surgery.
induction chemotherapy
Small glass chips on which tens of thousands of specific DNA sequences have been laid out in precise grids using a process similar to that used to make silicon chips.
gene chips
Unspecialized cells that can divide and produce cells that differentiate into the many different types of specialized cells in the body (brain cells, muscle cells, skin cells, blood cells, and so on).
stem cells
A chemical messenger produced by a variety of cell types that helps regulate many cell functions; immune system cells release this to help amplify and coordinate the immune response.
cytokine
A drug that inhibits the action of any of the protein-splitting enzymes known as proteases. Because some proteases facilitate metastasis, protease inhibitors are being developed for cancer therapy.
protease inhibitor
Cancer 7 prevention signs (caution)
changes in bowl or bladder habits
sore that doesn't heal
thickening or lump in breast or elsewhere
indigestion or difficulty in swallowing
obvious change in a wart or mole
nagging cough or hoarseness
flexible sigmoidoscopy (FSIG) every
5 yrs
fecal occult blood test (FOBT) every
yr
double-contrast barium enema every
5yrs
colonoscopy every
10yrs