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93 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
cranial nerve I
olfactory
smell
cranial nerve II
optic
vision
cranial nerve III
oculomotor
motor-most EOM movement, raise eyelids
parasympathetic-pupil constriction, lens shape
cranial nerve IV
trochlear
down and inward movement of eye
cranial nerve V
trigeminal
motor-muscles of mastication
sensory-sensation of face and scalp, cornea, mucous membranes of mouth and nose
cranial nerve VI
abducens
lateral movement of eye
cranial nerve VII
facial
motor-facial muscles, close eye, labial speech
sensory-taste (sweet, salty, sour, bitter) on anterior 2/3 of tongue
cranial nerve VIII
acoustic
hearing and equillibrium
cranial nerve IX
glossopharyngeal
motor-pharynx (phonation and swallowing)
sensory-taste on posterior 1/3 of tongue, pharynx (gag reflex)
parasympathetic-parotid gland, carotid reflex
cranial nerve X
vagus
motor-pharynx and larynx (talking and swallowing)
sensory-general sensation from carotid body, carotid sinus, pharynx, viscera
parasympathetic-carotid reflex
cranial nerve XI
spinal
movement of trapezius and sternomastoid muscles
cranial nerve XII
hypoglossal
movement of tongue
epidermis layers
stratum germinativum
(basal cell layer)

stratum corneum
inner layer with major ingredient of protein keratin
stratum germinativum
outer horny layer consists of dead keratinized cells that are interwoven and closely packed
stratum corneum
inner supportive layer consisting mostly of connective tissue or collagen
dermis
adipose tissue which is made up of lobules of fat cells
subcutaneous layer
ABCDE = A
asymmetry of a pigmented lesion (one that is not regularly round or oval)
ABCDE = B
border irregularity (notching, scalloping, ragged edges or poorly defined margins)
ABCDE = C
color variation (areas of brown, tan, black, blue, red, white or combination)
ABCDE = D
diameter greater than 6 mm (size of a pencil eraser)
ABCDE = E
elevation and enlargement
when the red-pink tones from the oxygenated hemoglobin in the blood are lost, the skin takes on the color of connective tissue (collagen), which is mostly white
pallor
intense redness of skin due to excess blood (hyperemia) in the dilated superficial capillaries
erythema
bluish mottled color that signifies decreased perfusion; tissues are not adequately perfused with oxygenated blood
cyanosis
exhibited by a yellow color, indicating rising amounts of bilirubin in blood
jaundice
skin's ability to return to place promptly when released
turgor
normal nail angle
160 degrees or less between nail base and nail
may have slight curve
normal nail color
linear pigmentation (dark-skinned people)
leukonychia striata-white hairline linear markings from trauma or picking at cuticle
normal capillary refill
< 2 seconds
circular, begins in center and spreads to periphery; tinea corporis or ringworm, tinea versicolor, pityriasis rosea
annular
lesions run together; urticaria (hives)
confluent
distinct, individual lesions that remain separate; molluscum
discrete
clusters of lesions; vesicles of contact dermatitis
grouped
twisted, coiled spiral, snakelike
gyrate
iris, resembles iris of eye, concentric rings of color in lesions; erythema multiforme
target
scratch, streak, line or stripe
linear
annular lesions grow together; lichen planus, psoriasis
polycyclic
linear arrangement along a nerve route; herpes zoster
zosteriform
solely a color change, flat and circumscribed, of less than 1 cm; freckles, flat nevi, hypopigmentation, petechiae, measles, scarlet fever
macule
something you can feel; solid, elevated, circumscribed, less than 1 cm diameter, due to superficial thickening in epidermis; elevated nevus (mole), lichen planus, molluscum, wart (verruca)
papule
solid, elevated, hard or soft, larger than 1 cm. may extend deeper into dermis than papule; xanthoma, fibroma, intradermal nevi
nodule
superficial, raised, transient and erythematous; slightly irregular shape due to edema (fluid held diffusely in tissues); mosquito bite, allergic reaction, dermographism
wheal
wheals coalesce to form extensive reaction, intensely pruritic
urticaria (hives)
elevated cavity containing free fluid, up to 1 cm. clear serum flows if wall is ruptured; herpes simplex, early varicella (chickenpox), herpes zoster (shingles), contact dermatitis
vesicle
turbid fluid (pus) in cavity. circumscribed and elevated; impetigo, acne
pustule
deeper depression extending into dermis, irregular shape; may bleed; leaves scar when heals; stasis ulcer, pressure sore, chancre
ulcer
tiny punctate hemorrhages, less than 2 mm, round and discrete, dark red, purple or brown in color. due to bleeding from superficial capillaries; will not blanch
petechiae
nodes in front of ear
preauricular
nodes superficial to mastoid process
posterior auricular
nodes at base of skull
occipital
nodes midline, behind tip of mandible
submental
nodes halfway between angle and tip of mandible
submandibular
nodes under angle of mandible
jugulodigastric
nodes overlying sternomastoid muscle
superficial cervical
nodes deep under sternomastoid muscle
deep cervical
nodes in posterior triangle along edge of trapeqius muscle
posterior cervical
nodes just above and behind clavicle, at sternomastoid muscle
supraclavicular
normal pulsations in neck
none when sitting
normal palpation of salivary glands
not palpable
normal tyroid gland palpation
difficult to palpate except in children
normal newborn head circumference
32 to 38 cm (average 34 cm)
edematous swelling and ecchymosis of presenting part of head due to birth trauma. extends across suture lines.
caput succedaneum
subperiosteal hemorrhage, which is also result of birth trauma. soft, fluctuant and well defined over one cranial bone because periosteum (covering over bone) holds bleeding in place.
cephalhematoma
tough, protective, white covering of eye
sclera
very sensitive to touch; contact with wisp of cotton stimulates blink in both eyes
cornea
round and regular. size is determined by balance between parasympathetic and sympathetic chains of autonomic nervous system.
pupul
normal constriction of pupils when bright light shines on retina
pupillary light reflex
reflex direction of eye toward an object attracting a person's attention
fixation
adaptation test of eye for near vision
accommodation test
gross measure of peripheral vision. compares person's peripheral vision with your own (assuming yours is normal)
confrontation test
normal results for confrontation test
50 degrees = superiorly
60 degrees = nasally
70 degrees = inferiorly
90 degrees = temporally
palpebral fissures in eyes are horizontal except in ____
Asians which have upward slant
normal eyeballs in blacks
slight protrusion of eyeball beyond supraorbital ridge
normal sclera color in blacks
gray-blue or muddy color;
small brown macules (like freckles) on sclera; yellowish fatty deposits beneath lids away from cornea
normal resting size pupil
3 to 5 mm; 5% of people have anisocoria (different sized pupils)
eye test where room is darken and person is asked to gaze into distance which dilates pupils. a light is advanced in from outer to inner side of eye and response is noted.
pupillary light reflex
normal results for pupillary light reflex
constriction of same-sided pupil (direct light reflex) and simultaneous constriction of other pupil (consensual light reflex)
eye test where person focuses on a distant object and then on a near object
accommodation
normal results for accommodation test
focus on objects
distant = dialated pupils (convergence of axes of eyes)
close = constricted pupils
PERRLA
pupils equal, round, react to light and accommodation
cul-de-sac canal 2.5 to 3 cm long in adult and terminates at eardrum (tympanic membrane)
external auditory canal
separates external and middle ear and is tilited obliquely to ear canal
tympanic membrane or eardrum
connects middle ear with nasopharynx and allows passage of air. tube is normally closed, but opens with swallowing or yawning.
eustachian tube
snail-shaped and contains central hearing apparatus
cochlea
sensory organ of hearing which has numerous fibers along basilar membrane
organ of Corti
caused when labyrinth becomes inflamed and wrong info is fed to brain; symptoms of staggering gait and strong, spinning, whirling sensation
vertigo
normal skin condition of external ear
Darwin's tubercle - small painless nodule at helix
normal cerumen
gray-yellow to light brown and black; texture varies from moist and waxy to dry and desicicated (dry up)
normal eardrum
shiny and translucent with pearl-gray color; cone-shape light reflex
five o'clock = right drum
seven o'clock = left drum
normal degrees for alignment of child's external ear
10 degrees
normal results for transillumination test of sinuses
diffuse red glow
sinuses in chidren are too small to palpate until what age?
> 8 years old