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35 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Breasts lie anterior to the ____________ and _____________ muscles.
1. pectoralis major
2. serratus anterior
Breasts are located between the ____ and ____ ribs, extending from the ____________ to the ______________.
2nd and 6th ribs
extending from side of sternum to midaxillary line
Tiny milk duct openings are indented on the ...
nipple
The areola contains ____________, which are ________.
Montgomery's glands -
small elevated sebaceous glands
What do Montgomery's glands do?
The secrete a protective lipid material during lactation.
Breasts are composed of three types of tissue. What are they?
1. glandular tissue
2. fibrous tissue (including suspensory ligaments
3. adipose tissue
What is contained in the glandular tissue of the breast?
clusters of alveoli that produce milk
What is another name for suspensory ligaments? What is their purpose?
Cooper's ligaments -
the attach to the chest wall and support the breast
What provides most of the bulk of the breast?
adipose tissue
What is the most common site of breast cancer?
tail of Spence
Where is the tail of Spence located?
in the upper, outer quadrant
What are the age ranges in which women should be performing a self breast exam monthly?
20-39
At which age should a woman begin getting yearly mammograms?
40
When should a women perform a breast self exam? Why?
after menstrual period or on the 4th-7th day of menstrual cycle because the breasts are smallest and least congested
What are the locations of the 4 lymph nodes in this region?
1. central axillary
2. pectoral
3. subscapular
4. lateral
At puberty, the __________ hormones stimulate breast changes.
estrogen
What is menarche?
the beginning of menstruation
Breast development precedes menarche by about ___ years.
2
In the pregnant female, after the 4th month ___________ may be expressed.
colostrum
What is colostrum?
A thick, yellow fluid that is the precursor for milk. It contains the same amount of protein and lactose as milk, but practically no fat. It is rich with antibodies.
In the aging female, __________ and __________ decrease, causing the breasts to atrophy.
estrogen and progesterone
What are the 5 risk factors for breast cancer that cannot be changed?
1. female sex, age > 50
2. personal Hx of breast cancer
3. first degree relative with breast cancer
4. previous breast irradiation
5. menstration before 12 or menopause after 50
What are the 7 risk factors for breast cancer that can be changed?
1. nulliparity or 1st child after age 30
2. recent oral contraceptive use
3. postmenopausal hormone therapy
4. not breast feeding
5. more than 1 alcoholic drink per day
6. obesity
7. physical inactivity
When examining the axilla, what 4 things should you be looking for?
1. tenderness
2. lump(s)
3. swelling
4. rash
True or false:
It is common to have a slight asymmetry in the size of the breasts; often the left breast is slightly larger than the right.
true
When inspecting the skin of the breasts, what abnormalities should you be looking for?
redness, bulging, or dimpling
What does recent nipple retraction signify?
acquired disease
An extra nipple along the embryonic "milk line" is called a _______, and is considered normal and a common variation.
supernumerary nipple
What are the 4 maneuvers to screen for retraction?
1. lift arms slowly over head
2. push hands onto hips
3. push two palms together (check for dimpling or pucker which means retraction)
4. lean forward (support her forearms)
Examine the _______ while the women is sitting.
axilla
What is the proper way to inspect and palpate the axilla?
reach fingers high into the axilla and move them firmly down in 4 directions
Usually nodes ______ (are/are not) palpable.
are not
When palpating the breasts, the women should be in the _______ position.
supine
What is the proper method of palpating the breast?
use the pads of the first 3 fingers and make a gentle rotary motion on the breast
What are the 3 methods of palpation? Which is the preferred method?
1. vertical strip (preferred)
2. spokes on a wheel
3. concentric circles