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140 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Angina
Chest Pain
Orthopnea
Shortness of breath while lying flat
Trepopnea
dyspnea that is relieved by lying on one's side
Aortic Area (Assessment Point)
Second Right intercoastal space
Pulmonic Area (Assessment Point)
Second Left intercoastal space
Erb's Point (Assessment Point)
Third Left intercoastal space
Tricupsid Area (assessment Point)
Fourth Left intercoastal space
Mitral Area (Assessment Point)
Fifth Left intercoastal space
Point of Maximum Intensity (Assessment Point)
6th Left intercoastal space
Abdominal (assessment point)
aorta bruits
Cardiac cycle
Diastole and Systole
Diastole
First heart sound= LUB
S1
Tricupsid and Mitral Valves Close
Heard best at Mitral and PMI
Systole
Second heart sound= DUB
S2
Aortic and Pulmonic Valves Close
Heard best at Aortic area
Base
Top of heart
Apex
Bottom of heart
Thrills
Vibrations that feels like cat's purr and felt with the ball of the hand
Indicates cardiac murmur
Splitting
valves not closing at the same time so two sounds are heard
Grade I Murmur
barely audible
Grade II Murmur
faint
Grade III Murmur
moderately loud
Grade IV Murmur
somewhat louder, may be accompanied with thrills
Grade V Murmur
loud with thrills
Grade VI Murmur
heard without stethoscope and also associated with thrills
Dextrocardia
heart is positioned on the right side of the chest instead of the normal left side
Atrioventricular Valves
Tricupsid Valve and Mitral Valve
Semilunar Valves
Pulmonic Valve and Aortic Valve
Mitral Stenosis
NARROWING of the mitral valve, causing the valve not to open completely
Mitral Regurgitation
Abnormal leaking of blood through the mitral valve because valve doesn't close tightly
Mitral Valve Prolapse
Mitral valve doesn't close correctly allow backward leaking of blood in the heart
Left Ventricular Hypertrophy
thickened muscle of the heart's main pumping chamber
Sick Sinus Syndrome
bradycardia in which the SA node is not working as it should
SA node
"Paceaker" generates electrical signals that regulate pace and rhythm of the heart beat
AV node
gets the signal and spreads it to the ventricles causing them to contract and pump blood
Bacterial Endocarditis
infection of the inner surface of the heart caused by bacteria
Congestive Heart Failure
the heart fails to pump blood to the body effectively
Pericarditis
inflammation of the pericardium, the sac- like membrane the surrounds the heart
Cardiac tamponade
blood or fluid filled collects within the pericardium and prevents fully expansion so the heart can not adequately fill or pump
Cor Pulmonale
alteration in the structure and function of the right ventricle caused by primary disorder of the respiratory system
Myocardial Infarction
heart attack occurring when an area of the heart muscle is damaged because of inadequate supply of oxygen
Myocarditis
inflammation of the heart muscle
Tetralogy of Fallot
in infants and children; four defects in different areas of the heart- pulmonary valve stenosis, ventricular septal defect, overriding aorta, right ventricular hypertrophy
ventricular septal defect
"hole" in the heart; a defect between the two lower chambers
Patent ductus arteriosus
a connection between the aorta and the pulmonary artery
atrial septal defect
"hole" in the heart; defect between the upper chambers
Atherosclerotic heart disease
hardening of the arteries
Senile cardiac amyloidosis
amyloid deposits in the heart that causes heart failure
Aortic Sclerosis
thicening and calcification of the aortic valve
Pulse Sites
carotid, brachial, radial, femoral, popliteal, posterior tibial, pedal
Pitting Edema Grading
1+... 1/4 inch or less
2+... 1/4 to 1/2 inch
3+... 1/4 inch to 1 inch
4+... 1 inch or more
Capillary refill
after blanching the nail bed, color should return in 2 to 3 seconds
Hemophilia
bleeding disorder
Claudication
circulation problem that causes pain during exercise
Three P's of Occlusion
Pain
Pallor
Pulselessness
Cranial arteritis
inflammation of the artery
Arterial aneurysm
weakening of an artery
Arteriovenous fistula
abnormal passageway between an artery and a vein
Peripheral Atherosclerotic Disease
occulsion of the blood supply due to atherosclerotic plaques and leads to claudication
Raynaud's disease
conditions that causes areas of the body (toes, fingers, nose,ears) to feel numb and cool due to cold temperature and stress
Arterial Embolic Disease
clot formation within the atrium
Venous thrombosis
involves clot formation in the large veins
Coarction of the aorta
narrowing of the aorta at the arch
Kawasaki disease
fever, rash, swollen hands and feet, redness of eyes, swollen lymph glans in the neck and inflammation of the mouth, lips and throat
Arteriosclerosis Obliterans
a stage of arteriosclerosis involving closure of blood vessels
Venous ulcers
ulcers generally found on lower extremities most often in elderly
Right lung
3 lobes
Left Lung
2 lobes
Paradox
reverse breathing; chest moves out on expiration and in on inspiration
Cheyne- Stokes
abnormal type of breathing; periods of shallow deep breathing and apnea
Biot
group of similar sized breaths alternating with regular periods of apnea
Ataxic
irregular breathing with regular pausing and increasing periods of apnea without a pattern
Hyperpnea
increase breathing required to meet demand
Hypopnea
shallow breathing
Kussmaul
very deep and labored breathing; diabetic acidosis
Vesicular breath sounds
heard over most of lung field
Bronchovesicular breath sounds
heard over bronchus area- where branch away from trachea
Bronchial/ Tracheal Breath Sounds
heard over the trachea- along the sternum
Amphoric
descriptive sound made by blowing across the top of a bottle
Crackles
abnormal respiration sound heard more often during inspiration- fine, medium, and course
Rhonchi
sonorous wheeze, loud- low course like a snore
Wheezes
musical noise sounding like a squeak
Friction Rub
dry rubbing sound caused by inflammation of pleural surface
Medistinal Crunch
mediastinal emphysema; loud crackles, clinking, and gurgling sounds
Pectoriloquy
a whisper can be heard clearly through a stethoscope
Bronchophony
greater clarity and increased loudness of spoken words
Egophony
intensity of spoken voice is increased and there is a nasal quality
Resonant
Loud and low
Flat
Soft and high
Dull
Medium and medium pitched
Asthma
COPD; airway inflammation and generally resulting from airway hyperreactivity triggered by allergens, anxiety, cigarrette smoke and temperature
Atelectasis
incomplete expansion of lung or the collapse of a lung
Bronchitis
inflammation of the mucous membranes of the bronchial tubes
Pleurisy
inflammation process involving the viseral and parietal pleura, resulting from pulmonary infection
Pleural effusion
excessive nonpurulent fluid in the pleural space resulting in fibrotic thickening
Emphysema
excessive purrulent in the pleural space
Lung Abscess
well defined circumscribed mass defined by inflamation and central necrosis
Pneumonia
inflammatory response to an infectious agent
Influenza
a host of viruses causes acute generalized febrile illness
Tuberculosis
chronic infectious disease that most often begins in the lungs and spreads in many organs and systems
Pneumothorax
the presence of air or gas in the pleural cavity
Hemothorax
the presence of blood in the pleural cavity
Cystic fibrosis
thick mucous may cause progressive clogging of the bronchi and bronchioles and subsequent pulmonary infections
Epiglotitis
inflammation of the epiglottis
Tracheomalaise
noisy breathing
OS
left eye
OD
right eye
OU
both eyes
Eyelid
Distribute tears over the eye
Limit the amount of light entering the eye
Protect the eye from foreign bodies
Conjuctiva
Protects the eye from foreign bodies and desiccation
Lacrimal gland
Produces tears that moisten the eye
Sclera
Anterior of the white of the eye -- should be white
Supports the internal structure of the eye
Cornea
Separates the watery fluid and the external environment
Permits the transmission of light through the lens to the retina
Iris
Contains pigments cells that produce the color of the eye
Pupil
Controls the amount of light reaching the retina by dilating and contracting
Retina
Sensory network for the brain
Transform light impulses to the brain
hyperopic
farsightedness
Myopic
nearsightedness
Presbyopia
An elderly disease; farshightedness
Numerator
Distance away from the chart
denominator
distance the average eye can read
Visual acuity
Each eye tested on 20 ft away from a snellen chart
Pinhole test
if vision is less than 20/20
astigmatism
abnormal condition of the eye in whch light rays do not focus clearly
Diplopia
double vision
cataracts
abnormal progressive condition of the lens
Exophthalmos
protrusion of the eyeball
Miosis
constriction of the pupil
ptosis
drooping of the eyelids
Strabismus
a condition in which both eyes do not focus on an object simultaneously
Stye
a purulent infection of the eyelid
Aphakia
a condition in which the lens of the eye is absent
Enophthalaus
backward displacement of the eye
Blepharitis
a inflammatory condition of the lash follicles
Glaucoma
abnormal condition of elevated pressure within the eye caused by obstruction of the outflow of aqueous humor
Mydriasis
dilation of the pupil
Amblyopia
reduced vision in an eye
Photophobia
sensitivity to light
Retinoblastoma
cancer of the retina
Retinitis pigmentosa
inherited condition characterized by night blindness and loss of peripheral vision
Arcus sinilis
surrounding the iris in the elderly
Nystagmus
involuntary eye movement