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108 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
The collection of data about an individual's health state
The Western European/North American tradtion that views health as the absence of disease
Biomedical Model
A Complete health history and full physical examination
Complete data base
Simultaneously problem-solving while self-improving one's own thinking ability
Critical thinking
A method of collecting and analyzing clinical information with the following components 1 attending to initially available cues, 2 formulationg diagnostic hypotheses 3 gathering data relative to the tentative hypothese 4 evaluating each hypothesis with the new data collected, arriving at a final diagnosis
Diagnostic reasoning
Rapid collection of the data base, often compiled concurrently with lifesaving measures
emergency data base
the total of all the conditions and elements that make up the surroundings and influence the development of a person
data base used for a limited or short-term problem; concerns mainly one proble, once cue complex, or one body system
episodic data base
data base used in all settings to monitor progress on short-term or chronic health problems
follow-up data base
the view that the mind, body and spirit are interdependent and function as a whole within the environment
Holistic health
Used to evaluate the cause and etiology of disease; focus is on the function or malfunction of a specific organ system
Medical diagnosis
used to evaluate the response of the whole person to actual or potential health problems
nursing diagnosis
a method of collecting and analyzing clinical information with the following components 1 assessment 2 diagnosis 2 outcome identification 4 planning 5 implementation and 6 evaluation
nursing process
What the health professional observes by inspecting, palpating, percussing, and auscultating during the physical examination
Objective data
Any action directed toward promoting health and preventing the occurrence of disease
What the person says about himself or herself during history taking
Subjective data
a dynamic process and view of health; a move toward optimal functioning
The characteristic of focusing on only one aspect of a situation at a time and ignoring other characteristics
children playing the same game and interacting while doing it
cooperative play
a child can witness an event, form a mental representation of it, and imitate it later in the absence of the model
Delayed imitation
the characteristic of focusing on one's own interests, needs and point of view and lacking concern for others
Piaget's term for the concept acquired by age 2 that an infant can think of an external evernt without actually experiencing it
Mental representation
Piaget's term for the concept acquired during infancy that objects and people continue to exist even when they are no longer in sight
Object permanence
Using the hand and fingers for the act of grasping
The total of the biologic reactions to an adverse stimulus--whether it be physical, mental, or emotional, internal or external--that tends to disturb the homeostasis of the body
Piaget's term for the concept acquired during childhood in which the child uses symbols to represent people, objects, and events
Symbolic function
Speech used by age 3 or 4 in which three- or four-wod sentences contain only the essential words
Telegraphic speech
The young child's thinking that when two events occur simultaneously, that one caused the other, even though they are unrelated
Trasductive reasoning
Tendency to impose your beliefs, values, and patterns of behavior on individuals from another culture
Cultural Imposition
State of disorientation to a different cultural group because of its sudden strangeness, unfamiliarity, and imcompatibility to person's perceptions and expectations
Culture Shock
Tendency to view your own way of life as the most desirable, acceptable, or best and to act superior to another culutre's lifeways
Lay healer in the person's culture apart from the biomedical/seientific health care system
folk healer
Ties with others by virtue of heredity and kinship
Lineal relationships
rules by which human behavior is governed, which result from the cultural values held by the group
an organized system of beliefs concerning the cause, nature, and purpose of the universe, especially a belief in God or gods
Each person's personal effort to find purpose and meaning in life
Fairly large aggregates of people who have shared characteristics that are not common to all members of the culture
a desirable or undesirable state of affairs, and a universal feature of all cultures
Health exsists when all aspects of the peron are in perfect balance
Yin/Yang theory
imagining that inanimate objects (e.g. a blood pressure cuff) come alive and have human characteristics
the use of euphemisms to avoid reality or to hide feelings
Avoidance language
examiner's response used when the patient's word choice is ambiguous or confusing
questions that ask for specific information; elicit a short, one or two word answer, a yes or no, or a forced choice
Closed questions
response in which examiner give honest feedback about what he or she has seen or felt after observing a certain patient action, feeling, or statement
the use of impersonal speech to put space between the self and a threat
viewing the world from the other person's inner frame of reference while remaining yourself; recognizing and accepting the other person's feelings without criticism
The tendency to view your own way of life as the most desirable, acceptable, or best and to act in a superior manner to another culture's lifeways
examiner's statements that inform the patient; examiner shares factual and objective information
examiner's response that encourages the patient to say more, to continue with the story
examiner's statement that is not based on direct observation, but is based on examiner's inference or conclusion; it links events, makes associations, or implies cause
meeting between examiner and patinet with the goal of gathering a complete health history
using medical vocabulary with patient in an exclusionary and paternalistic way
a question that implies that one answer would be better than another
leading question
message conveyed through body language--posture, gestures, facial expression, eye contact, touch, and even where one places the chairs
nonverbal communication
asks for longer narrative information; unbiased; leaves the person free to answer in any way
Open-ended questions
examiner response that echoes the patient's words; repeats part of what patient has just said
final review of what examiner understands patient has said; condenses facts and presents a survey of how the examiner perceives the health problem or need
Messages sent through spoken words, vocalizations, tone of voice
Verbal communication
pondering a deeper meaning beyond the concrete and literal
abstract reasoning
concentration, ability to focus on one specific thing
being aware of one's own existence, feelings, and thoughts and being aware of the environment
using the voice to communicate one's thoughts and feelings
ability to lay down and store experiences and perceptions for later recall
prolonged display of a person's feelings
awareness of the objective world in relation to the self
awareness of objects through any of the five senses
what the person thinks--specific ideas, beliefs, the use of words
Thought content
the way a person thinks, the logical train of thought
thought process
Excess body fat that is placed predominantly within the abdomen and upper body, as opposed to the hips and thighs
Android obesity
a less-then-expected or absent immune reaction in response to the injection of antigens within the skin
measurement of the body, e.g., height, weight, circumferences, skinfold thickness
Weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared (W/H2);value of 30 or more is indicative of obesity; value of less than 18.5 is indicative of undernutrition
Body mass index BMI
index or ratio sometimes used to assess body protein status
Creatinine-height index (CHI)
a detailed record of dietary intake obtainable from 24-hour recalls, food frequency questionnaires, food diarie, and similar methods
Diet history
excess body fat that is placed predominantly within the hips and thighs
gynoid obesity
primarily a protein deficiency characterized by edema, growth failures, and muscle wasting
may mean any nutrition disorder but usually refers to long-term nutritional inadequacies or excesses
Combination of chronic energy deficit and chronic or acute protein deficiency
Marasmic kwashiorkor
results from energy and protein deficiency, presenting with significant loss of body weight, skeletal muscle, and adipose tissue mass, but with serum protein concentrations relatively intact
a more sensitive indicator of lean body mass than MAC or MAMC
Mid-arm muscle area MAMA
an indicator of lean body mass and fat stores
Mid-upper arm circumference (MAC)
an indicator of lean body mass calculated from the triceps skinfold thickness and the mid-upper arm circumference
mid-upper arm muscle circumference (MAMC)
condition in which nitrogen losses from the body are equal to nitrogen intake; the expected state of the healthy adult
nitrogen balance
assessment of dietary or nutritional status at intermittent times with the aim of detecting changes in the dietary or nutritional status of a population
Nutritional monitoring
a precess used identify individuals at nutrition risk or with nutritional problems
nutrition screening
excessive accumulation of body fat; usually defined as 20% above desirable weight
inadequate consumption of protein and energy, resulting in a gradual body wasting and increased susceptibility to infection
Protein-Calorie malnutrition (PCM)
Levels of intake of essential nutrients considered to be adequate to meet the nutritional needs of practically all healthy persons
Recommended daily allowance (RDA)
proteins present in serum that are indicators of the body's visceral protein status (e.g., albumin, prealbumin, trasferrin)
Serum proteins
double fold of skin and underlying subcutaneous tissue that is measured with skinfold calipers at various body sites
skinfold thickness
waist or abdominal circumference divided by the hip or gluteal circumference; method for assessing fat distribution
Waist-to-Hip ratio (WHR)
A brief time period when Korotkoff's sounds disappear during auscultation of blood pressure; common with hypertension
Auscultatory gap
heart rate <60 beats per minute in the adult
instrument for measuring arterial blood pressure
amount of blood pumped out of the heart with each heartbeat
Stroke volume
heart rate of >100 beats per minute in the adult
Pain orginating from skin surface or subcutaneous structures
Cutaneous Pain
pain message is inhibited during this last phase of nociception
abnormal processing of pain message; burning, shooting in nature
neuropathic pain
Process whereby noxious stimuli are preceived as pain
specialized nerve endings that detect painful sensations
"an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage, or described in terms of such damage. Pain is always subjective"
Conscious awareness of a painful sensation
Pain felt at a particular site, but orginates from another location
referred pain
originating from muscle, bone, joints, tendons, or blood vessels
Somatic pain
first phase of nociception whereby the painful stimulus is changed into an action potential
Second phase of nociception whereby the pain impulse moves from the spinal cord to the brain
originating from interior organs such as the gall bladder or stomach
Visceral pain