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54 Cards in this Set

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alcohol effects....
and begins working....
every cell in body
the second you ingest it
why doesnt alcohol have to be digested?
absorbed into bloodstream from intestines --> liver
how many drinks can the liver handle?
1 drink per hour
what is the first effect of alcohol?
depressent - reason/judgement leaves first - inhibitions
what is the effect of alcohol on blood vessels?
relaxes nerves --> opens up blood vessels --> flushed
2nd effect of alcohol?
sedates cerebral cortex = speech/vision, go to sleep, cant control emotions
bodys protection devices
1.throat stings - prevents too much at once
2.stomach rejects too much
3.breaks down whats in blood ASAP
hangovers caused by:
1.congeners - ingredients other than alcohol, irritates nervous system
2.dehydration of brain - nerves hurt when swell back
3.formaldehyde - made by body from alcohol - causes hangovers
hangover deleruim/tremors
delirium: confusion, hallucinations, movement
tremors: quivering shacking
long term excessive drinking =
liver disease: fills with fat, cirrhosis (scaring), dies and hardens
liver damage --> high BP --> stroke/heart attack
excess fat or too skinny
brain shrinks
risk of cancer in mouth
pancreas stops producing insulin
FAS
first 4 effects of alcohol
1.frontal lobe - reasoning/judgement
2.speech and vision
3.muscular control
4.respiration/heartbeat
alcohol in moderation
less risk for heart attacks, cancer = 2-6 drinks per week
proof
percentage of alcohol, proof = twice percent
drink
1/2 ounce pure alcohol
12 oz beer, 1 oz hard liquor, 3-4 oz wine
why cant females drink as much?
1.body size
2.smaller volume of blood
3.higher percent body fat
binge drinker
4 or more drinks in an hour
why is alcohol a dirty drug?
works on multiple sides of body, not just one
why does very littel alcohol move into bloodstream from teh sotmach?
because enymes break it down in stomach before it becomes intoxicating
why is it important that alcohol is a small molecule?
easily slip through organ walls (includes brain)
alcohol affects ___ system of the brain. what else does?
dopamine system - meth/coke
what effects does dopamine have on body?
sends pleasure signals after sex, eating, drinking, "high"
does one drink impair your ability to perform complex tasks?
yes
what is GABA?
amino acid - limits activity of neurons in brain, slows it down
what does alcohol do to GABA?
enhances GABA system
what does glutamate system do to brain?
speeds it up
what does alcohol do to glutamate system? how does this affect someone who contiunes to drink?
slows it down - impairs.
memory dulls, confusion, trouble coordinating, breathing shuts down --> coma
how does GABA and glutamate contribute to hang overs?
systems have changed so tries to regain normalcy. less senstive to GABA, more to glutamate. alcohol wears off but brains still trying, hang over ends when leves = normal
what does body turn methanol into? another name?
formaldehyde --> formic acid, embalming fluid
single exposure to alcohol during pregnancy =
brain damage (learing disabilities to physical damage)
FAS is NOT....
curable but 10-12 age gap/window for help
FAS
physical appearance
lower IQ's
lower crime and addiction rate
earlier diagnosis
FAE
no physical appearance
higher IQ's
b/c look normal, expected to act normal --> secondary disabilities
each FAE/FAS costs tax payers...
3 million
amount of damage based on...
volume, timing, peak blood alcohol levels, genetics, environment
BAL of mom =
blood alcohol level of baby = bad
teratogen - cause permanent brain damage
first trimester
alcohol effects way cells are growing - altering tissue growth
diminishes # of cells growing in brain --> brain being smaller
second trimester
miscarriage = biggest risk
third trimester
increased chances of neruological and growth definciencies
FAS on newborns
decreased bodily activity
jitters/seizures/tremors
lower hearing
weak suck
arched back
poor/heightened muscle tensions
unpredictable/disrupted sleep cycles
FAS on infants (1-4)
delayed development
head banging
body rocking
poor fine motor schools
neurological disfunction
cerebral palsy
FAS on pre-schoolers
hyperactivity
poor hand-eye coordination
central auditory disfunction
mental redardation
poor balance
poor tandem gait
delayed language
FAS on school/adolescents
attention impariments
arithmetic disabilities
memory imparmetns
learing disabilities
poor impluse control
difficulties wiht judgement
5 risk factors of alcoholism
1.gender
2.family history
3.genetic factors
4.cultural factors
5.psychological vulnerability
6.psychiatric disorders
genetics
5 times more likely in men
family history
men w/ no parents = 11.4
men with one parent = 29.5
genetic factors
way people respond and process alcohol
cultural factors
more of a problem in some coutnries
psychological vulnerability
high self expectations, low frustration tolerence, feeling inadequete, needed large amounts of praise, impulsive/agressive
psychiatric disorders
anxiety, depression, personality disorders, schizo
symptoms (5)
1.increased tolerence
2.increased problems as result
3.denail
4.loss of control
5.continue despite conaequences
.05%
1-2 drinks
mild impariment in judgment
careless behavior
loss of coordination/self control
.10%
3-4 drinks
substantial impairment in coordination, perception, judment
emotions and inhibitions relaxed
.20%
5-6 drinks
increased loss of self control
unpredictable emotional behavior
motor area of brain depressed = slurred speech, staggard walk
simple tasks = hard
.30%
7-8 drinks
state of confusion