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65 Cards in this Set

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Personality
A mix of how you feel, think, and behave that makes you different from anyone else.
Social-Learning Approach
Reolve around reinforcement; actions that lead to rewards are likely to be repeated, and thsoe that lead to punishment are unlikely to be repeated.
Humanistic Approach
Based on the belief that each person is born essentially good and worthy, and has the potential to develop into a fully empowered person.
Heredity
the biological passing of characteristics from parents to offspring
Intelligence
the ability to learn and to adapt what you know to changing situations
Instincts
certain pattern of behavior that doesn't need to be learned
Socialization
the process of teaching behavior based on the beliefs and habits of the family and community.

It includes the teaching of cultural heritage through the teaching of religion, traditions, dress, and ways of behaving.
Conditioning
the shaping of behaviors by means of rewards and punishments.
Modeling
the process of learning by watching and imitating another person
Erik Erikson
A Social-Learning theorist, who studied development in terms of social reinforcement.

He believed that a person's development depends on his or her social interactions at key points in life.
Erikson's 8 Stages of Social Development
1 (0-1yr): Trust vs. Mistrust

2 (1-3yrs): Autonomy vs. Shame & Doubt

3 (3-7yrs): Initiative vs. Guilt

4 (7-12yrs): Industry vs. Inferiority

5 (Adolescence): Identity vs. Role Confusion

6 (Early Adult): Intimacy vs. Isolation

7 (Middle Adult): Generativity vs. Stagnation

8 (Late Adult): Integrity vs. Despair
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
Physiological Needs
Safey Needs
Need for Love/Belonging
Esteem Needs
Intellectual Needs
Aesthetic Needs
Self-Actualization
Values
the rules and standards that you feel are important to live by
Maturity
the state of being fully grown
Self-Concept
your view of yourself and your role in life
Attitude
your sate of mind toward something in particular or toward life in general
Emtions
strong, immediate reactions that you feel in response to an experience
Hostility
feeling and behaving in an unpleasant way
Anxiety
makes you feel nervous and ill at ease; your blood vessels dilate, and changes occur in your digestive tract, causing a tight feeling in your stomach.
Grief
a deep sorrow that is caused by the loss of someone or something
Five Stages of Grief
Denial, Anger, Bargaining, Depression, Acceptance
Emotional Reactions to Grief
Shock and Disbelief
Emotional Release
Depression & Loneliness
Physical Distress
Panic
Guilt
Hostility and Resentment
Dejection
Reconciliation
Adaptation
Defense Mechanisms
ways to protect or defend yourself from feeling too much pain
Repression
painful thoughts or feelings are pushed away from conscious thought
Rationalization
the act of making an excuse for a behavior, in order to preserve self-esteem and avoid guilt.
Compensation
covering up faults or weaknesses by trying to excel in other areas
Projection
seeing your own faults or feelings in other people, even when they don't have them.

this is used when you don't like your own behavior; seeing it in others makes your own behavior easier to accept.
Idealization
admiring someone so much that you see the person as perfect.
Daydreaming
the creation of make-believe events that seem more pleasant or exciting than the real world.
Regression
acting less maturely than you usually would.

EG, sulking or throwing tantrums instead of expressing disappointment maturely
Denial
the refusal to recognize reality.

it is used to protect yourself from facing an unpleasant fact that you can't accept.
Sublimation
the replacement of undesirable impulses with acceptable behavior
Displacement
shifting the feelings about one person or situation to an object or another person
Reaction Formation
hiding your true feelings from yourself by acting in a manner opposite to the way you would like to act.
Characteristics of Mental Health
Self-Awareness
Control over behavior
Self-esteem and acceptance
Ability to form relationships
Productive attitude
Organic Mental Illness
has a physical cause
EG, Alzheimer's Disease
Characteristics of Alzheimer's
forgetfulness, anger, frustration
Types of Emotional Mental Illnesses
Psychotic, Modd, Anxiety, Sexual, Personality
Schizophrenia
chronic PSYCHOTIC mental illness; deal with things outside reality [hallucinations]
Major Depression
MOOD; don't get out of bed, bathe, eat; don't pay attention to friends/interests; hopeless
Bipolar Disorder
[Manic Depression]
swing between severe depression and mania; manic episodes characterized by uncontrollable behavior, suspicion, starting many projects, inability to sit still.
Seasonal Affective Disorder
depression due to lack of sunlight; prominent near poles
Characteristics of Anxiety Disorders
intense fear; increased heart beat; hyperventilation; pupiles dilate; hair stands up
Anxiety (Panic) Disorder
"triggers" for panic attacks
Psychosomatic Illness
physically-manifested disease/condition caused by mental state
Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder
after-effects of experiencing a traumatic event (often affects soldiers).

flashbacks, nightmares, difficulty with relationships, sleeping trouble, turning to substance abuse.
Triskadekaphobia
fear of the number 13
Claustrophobia
fear of closed spaces
Agoraphobia
fear of open spaces
Gynephobia
fear of women
Xenophobia
fear of strangers
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder
characterized by obsessions and compulsions; often perform rituals, such as hand-washing.
Obsession
thought that overtakes your mind
Compulsion
repeated action to remove anxiety caused by the obsession
Pedophilia
people who are obsessed by sex with children
*Illegal
Paraphilia
fetishes
Exhibitionism
Flashers
*Illegal
Sexual Addiction
not yet an official mental disorder
Paranoid Personality Disorder
constantly think people are plotting against them
Passive-Aggressive Personality Disorder
can't face up to people you're angry at; instead of direct confrontation, they intentionally annoy the person, try to undermine their self-confidence.
Borderline Personality Disorder
never satisfied; must be constantly reassured/reaffirmed; try testing people's limits
Criteria For Mental Health
Realistic Self-Image
Self-Acceptance
Realistic Perceptions
Good Stress Tolerance
Self-Reliant
Competent
DSM
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual; lists all mental illnesses and gives a number corresponding to each illness; lists very specific symptoms
Somatoform Disorder
condition in which there are physical symptoms, but no physical illness
Trait Approach
defines personality in terms of specific traits