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40 Cards in this Set

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Proof
with distilled spirits, alcohol content is expressed in terms of _____, a number that is twice the number of alcohol
Blood alcohol Concentration
the amount of alcohol in the blood, expressed as a percentage. Measured from breath or urine sampes.
alcohol intoxication
maladaptive behavorial, psychological, and physiologic changes that occur as a result of sustance abuse
alcohol poisoning
excessive alcohol consumption that can depress nerves that control involuntary actions, such as, breathing and gag reflexes.
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome
alcohol crosses the placenta and can cause birth defects in unborn children
alcohol abuse
continued use of alcohol despite awareness of social, occupational, psychological, or physical problems related to its use, or use of alcohol in dangerous ways or situations.
alcohol dependence
development of a strong craving for alcohol due to the pleasurable feelings or relief of stress or anxiety produced by drinking
alcoholism
a chronic, progressive, potentially fatal disease characterized by impaired control of drinking, a preoccupation with alcohol, continued use of alcohol despite adverse consequences, and distorted thinking, most notably denial.
carcinogens
tar which contains numerous cancer-causing particles that remain in the lungs
nicotine
dangerous, colorless, oily compoun. Highly addictive stimulant both physically and psychologically. Spreads to the nervous system within 8 seconds
mainstream smoke
the smoke inhaled directly by smoking a cigarette
sidestream smoke
smoke emitted by a burning cigartte and breathed by everyone in a closed room, including the smoker; contains more tar and nicotine than mainstream smoke
Human Papilloma (HPV)
a pathogen that causes genital warts and increases the risk of cervical cancer.
Complications: increased risk of cancers. leads to obstruction of urethra, vagina, and anus.
Treatment: Not always required. can be removed by freezing, cauterication, chemicals or surgicaly
Chlamydia
sexually transmitted disease caused by the bacterium chlamydia trachomatis.
Dangers:may result in pelvic inflammatory disease and may be linked to cervical cancer.
Treatment: Antibiotics
Gonorrhea
caused by bacterium Niesseria gonorrhoeae.
Comps in Women: sterility, PID, threat to newborn, serious bloodborn infection.
Comps in Men: urinary obstruction
Treatment: antibiotics
Syphilis
caused by treponema pallidum and characterized by early sores, a latent period, and a final period of life-threatening symptoms.
Comps: Brain damage, heart failure.
Treatment: Penicillin
Types of Syphilis
Primary Syphilis
Secondary Syphilis
Latent Syphilis
Tertiary Syphyilis
Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)
type of virus that causes a spectrum of health problems, ranging from a symptom-less infection to changes in the immune system, to the development of life-threatening diseases b/c of impaired immunity
Aquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS)
the final stages of HIV; characterized by a variety of severe illnesses and decreased levels of certain immune cells.
Epidemic
a highly significant increase in the number of cases of an infectious illness existing in a given time period in a given geographical area
pandemic
an epidemic that has crossed national boundaries thus achieving regional or international status (i.e. HIV/AIDS)
Chain of infection
1.agent: casual pathogen
2.Reservoir:infected person
3.Portal of exit
4.Mode of transmission:direct/indrect
5.Portal in Entry
6.New Host
Stage of infection

incubation stage
from the time a pathogen enters the body until it produces signs and symptoms of the disease
stage of infection

prodromal stage
host starts to experience a variety of general signs and symptoms
stage of infection

clinical stage
disease reaches its highest point of development; disease is most contagious during this stage
stage of infection

decline stage
first signs of recovery
stage of infection

recovery stage
build up of immunity, until the host's overall health has been strengthened
the common cold
acute upper-respiratory-tract infection
Lyme disease
a bacterial infection spread by ticks carrying the a bacterium called borrelis burgdorferi.
symptoms include joint inflammation, heart arrhythmias, headaches, and memory lapses. ne treatment
West Nile Virus
transmitted by a mosquito that feeds on an infected bird and then bites a human. Interferes w/ normal central nervous system, functioning and causes inflammation of brain tissue. No treament
at eight weeks gestation the embryo is the size of a _____.
Walnut
at 26 week the fetus can ____. The fetus also responds to _____ and _____.
taste and squeeze its hand. Light and sound
An alternation form of delivery, which is surgical, is know as _____
a cesarian: c-section
in the U.S about 1 out of __ pregnancies result in a mis-carriage
6
an infant born at __ week gestation may survive
26
placenta
barrier and filter for blood for the fetus
at 7 months gestation the fetus adds a layer of ___ to cushion itself
Fat
the empty uterus is about the size of a _____.
fist
oxygen flow to the fetus via the ___________.
Umbillical cord
During a vaginal delivery, the woman's pelvis may expand _____
33%