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74 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Ectoderm gives rise to which 2 layers?
1. Neuroectoderm
2. Neural crest
Mesoderm gives rise to? (3)
1. Paraxial mesoderm
2. Intermediate mesoderm
3. Lateral plate mesoderm
Endoderm develops into? (2)
1. Pharyngeal pouches
2. Epithelium lining primitive gut
Head & neck are formed by?
1. Paraxial mesoderm
2. Lateral plate mesoderm
3. Neural crest
4. Ectodermal placodes
Most of the head & neck is formed from?
Pharyngeal arches
Initially how many pharyngeal arches develop?
6 initially --> 5th regresses
When do the pharyngeal pouches start forming?
4th week in utero
Skeletal components develop from?
Neural crest
Muscular structures develop from?
mesoderm
What are the derivatives of the ECTODERM? (5)
1. CNS & PNS
2. Sensory epithelium (ear, nose, eye)
3. Epidermis (hair & nails)
4. Glands (subcutaneous, mammary, pituitary)
5. Enamel
Appearance of notochord & prechordal mesoderm induces overlying ectoderm to thicken & form?
Neural plate
Cells of neural plate make up the?
Neuroectoderm
Induction of cells of neural plate represents the inital event in process called?
Neurulation
During neurulation the primitive streak & primitive node are visible by which day?
16-day presomite embryo
During neurulation, the amnion has been removed & neural plate is clearly visible by?
19 days presomite embryo
Embryo shows somites & formation of neural groove & neural folds by?
20 days
Seven distinct somites are visible on each side of the neural tube by which day of neurlation?
Day 22
Pericardial bulge on each side of midline in cephalic part of embryo at which day of neurulation?
Day 23
Neural crest cells in the spinal cord form at the tips of?
Neural folds
Neural crest cells of the spinal cord do not migrate away from tips of neural folds until?
Neural tube closure is complete
When do neural crest cells in head region migrate?
Prior to neural tube closure
Neural crest cells in head region form?
1-6 pharyngeal arches
V, VII, IX & X epibranchial placodes
What are epibranchial placodes?
Cranial, ectodermal thickenings that give rise to sensory neurons of PNS (V, VII, IX & X)
What are the NEURAL CREST derivatives? (14)
1. CT & bones of face & skull
2. CN ganglia & Spinal (dorsal root) ganglia
3. C cells of thyroid gland
4. Conotruncal septum of heart
5. Odontoblasts
6. Dermis in face & neck
7. Sympathetic chain & preaortic ganglia
8. Parasympathetic ganglia of GI
9. Adrenal medulla
10. Schwann & glial cells
12. Meninges (forebrain)
13. Melanocytes
14. SM cells to blood vessels of face & forebrain
All voluntary muscles of head region, including musculature of tongue, eye (except iris) & those associated w/ pharyngeal arches are derived from?
Paraxial mesoderm
Patterns of muscle formation in head are directed by?
CT elements derived from neural crest cells
Paraxial mesoderm form segemented series of tissue blocks on each side of the neural tube known as?
Somitomeres- head region
Somites- from occiptal region caudally
What muscles are derived from somitomeres 1 & 2? (3)
1. Superior rectus
2. Medial rectus
3. Inferior rectus
What muscles are derived from somitomere 3?
Superior oblique
What muscles are derived from somitomere 4?
Jaw closing muscles
What muscle is derived from somitomere 5?
Lateral rectus
What muscles are derived from somitomere 6?
Jaw opening muscles & other 2nd arch
What muscle is derived from somitomere 7?
Stylopharyngeus
What muscles are derived from somite 1 & 2?
Intrinsic laryngeal muscles
What muscles are derived from somites 2-5?
Tongue
What are the ENDODERMAL derivatives? (5)
1. Epithelium of respiratory tract
2. Parenchyma of thyorid, parathyroids, liver & pancreas
3. Reticular stroma of tonisls and thymus
4. Epithelium of bladder & urethra
5. Epithelium of tympanic cavity & auditory tube
What forms the epithelial lining of the primitve gut & intraembryonic portions of allantois & vitelline duct?
Endoderm
What SKELETAL components are derived from ARCH I? (5)
MAXILLARY PROCESS:
1. Maxilla
2. Zygomatic
3. Temporal
MANDIBULAR PROCESS:
4. Mandible (ventral)
5. Incus & malleus (dorsal)
What SKELETAL components are derived from ARCH II? (4)
1. Cranial 1/2 of hyoid
2. Stapes
3. Styloid process of temporal bone
4. Stylohyoid ligament
What SKELETAL components are derived from ARCH III? (1)
Lower hyoid
What SKELETAL components are derived from ARCHES IV & VI?
Laryngeal cartilages
What MUSCULAR components are derived from ARCH I? (5)
1. Muscles of mastication
2. Mylohyoid
3. Anterior belly of digastric
4. Tensor palatini
5. Tensor tympani
What MUSCULAR components are derived from ARCH II? (4)
1. Muscles of facial expression
2. Posterior belly of digastric
3. Stylohyoid
4. Stapedius
What MUSCULAR component is derived from ARCH III?
Stylopharyngeus
What MUSCULAR components are derived from ARCH IV? (3)
1. Cricothyroid
2. Levator palatini
3. Pharyngeal constrictors
What MUSCULAR components are derived from ARCH VI?
Intrinsic muscles of larynx
Superior laryngeal nerve of X is derived from which arch?
Arch IV
Recurrent laryngeal nerve of X is derived from which arch?
Arch VI
What are the ARTERIAL derivatives of ARCH I?
Maxillary arteries
What are the ARTERIAL derivatives of ARCH II?
Hyoid & stapedial arteries
What are the ARTERIAL DERIVATIVES of ARCH III?
1. Common carotid
2. First part of internal carotid
What are the ARTERIAL derivatives of LEFT side of ARCH IV? (3)
Arch of aorta
Left common carotid
Left subclavian
What are the ARTERIAL derivatives of RIGHT side of ARCH IV?
Right subclavian artery
What are the ARTERIAL derivatives of LEFT side of ARCH VI?
1. Left pulmonary artery
2. Ductus arteriosus
What are the ARTERIAL derivatives of RIGHT side of ARCH VI?
Right pulmonary artery
Pharyngeal clefts are derived from?
Ectoderm
Pharyngeal pouches are derived from?
Endoderm
PHARYNGEAL MEMBRANES-- tissue located between pharyngeal pouch & cleft
External lining = ?
Core = ?
Internal lining = ?
PHARYNGEAL MEMBRANES-- tissue located between pharyngeal pouch & cleft
External lining = Ectoderm
Core = Mesoderm & neural crest
Internal lining = Endoderm
What is the embryonic structure of pharyngeal pouch I?
Tubotympanic recess
What is the embryonic structure of pharyngeal pouch II?
Primitive palatine tonsil
What are the embryonic & adult structures of of pharyngeal pouch III?
Dorsal part-- Inferior parathyroid gland
Ventral part--Thymus
What are the embryonic & adult structures of of pharyngeal pouch IV?
Dorsal part- Superior parathyroid glands
Ventral part- parafollicular cells, ultimobranchial body
What is the adult structure of the 1st pharyngeal membrane?
Tympanic membrane
What is the adult structure of the 1st pharyngeal cleft?
External auditory meatus
Follicular cells of thyroid are derived from?
Endoderm
Parafollicular cells of thyroid are derived from?
Ultimobranchial body (endoderm)
Face is formed from mainly neural crest which makes 3 swellings that surround stomodeum?
1. Frontonasal prominence
2. Maxillary prominence (1st arch)
3. Mandibular prominence (1st arch)
What are the 2 additional areas of ectoderm that form the 2 nasal placodes lateral to frontonasal prominence?
1. Lateral nasal prominence
2. Medial nasal prominence
What forms the intermaxillary segment?
Fusion of medial nasal prominences at midline
What is the primitive mouth opening?
Stomodeum
What are the 3 placodes involved in development of the face?
1. Otic placode
2. Nasal placode
3. Optic/lens placode
Upper lip develops from?
Maxillary prominence & median nasal prominence
Lower lip develops from
Mandibular prominence
Philtrum, primary palate & upper jaw containing central & lateral incisors dervelops from?
Intermaxillary segment