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143 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
what forms the forehead skeleton?
squamous part of the frontal bone
squamous
flat
squamous frontal bone articulates winferiorly with:
nasal and zygomatic bones (inferiorly); also articulates w/ lacrimal, ethmoid/sphenoid.
metopic suture
remnant of frontal suture in adults
where is the metopic suture
in the glabella
glabella
smooth and sl. depressed area between superciliary arches
superciliary arch
ridge just superior to supraorbital margin, extending laterally from glabella
what is the frontal suture?
the dividing line between the frontal bones in fetal cranium
intersection of frontal and nasal bones:
nasion, aka bridge of the nose
supraorbital margin:
angular boundary between squamous and orbital parts of the frontal bone
what passes through the supraorbital foramen?
Supraorbital nerve and vessels
What holes reside in the orbits?
-Superior/inferior orbital fissures
-Optic canals
These bones form the prominence of the cheeks:
Zygomatic bones
Small hole in the lateral zygomatic bone:
Zygomaticofacial foramen
Zygomatic bones articulate with:
-frontal
-sphenoid
-temporal
-maxillae
Anterior nasal opening in cranium:
piriform aperture
what divides the nasal cavity into right/left parts?
nasal septum; connects the vomer and perpendicular plate of ethmoid.
what form the upper jaw?
maxillae
what are alveoli in regard to maxillae?
the tooth sockets
what supports the alveoli?
alveolar processes - on the maxillae; also suppor the teeth in the maxillae.
what forms the infraorbital margins?
maxillae
what hole is found inferior to each orbit?
infraorbital foramen
what passes through the infraorbital foramen?
infraorbital nerves/vessels
what is the articulation btwn maxillae called?
intermaxillary suture
What makes up the lower jaw?
mandible
In the mandible what denotes:
-the horizontal part
-the vertical part
horizontal = body

vertical = ramus
what are the holes inferior to second premolars called?
mental foramen
what runs through the mental foramen?
mental nerves/vessels
what is the chin prominence called?
mental protuberance
what is the mandibular symphysis?
the osseous union where the halves of the infantil mandible fuse.
what are fractures of the maxillae called?
Le Fort fractures
What is a Le Fort I fracture?
Horizontal fracture of maxillae, passing above the alveolar processes.
What is a Le Fort II?
a break passing from postero-lateral side of the maxillary sinuses, up to the bridge of the nose.
What is the result of a LeFort II?
the entire central part of the face seperates from the cranium.
What is a Le Fort III fracture?
horizontal fracture thru superior orbital fissures, ethmoid, and nasal bones;
Laterally extends thru sphenoid greater wings and frontozygomatic sutures
what is the result of a lefort III?
the MAxillae and Zygomatic bones separate from the cranium.
How do mandible fractures usually present?
As a double fracture - one on either side of the jaw.
How does a hard blow to the jaw usually affect it?
Fractures the mandibular neck, and the mandibular body in the opposite canine tooth region.
What type of fracture is associated with the coronoid process?
a single fracture - fairly uncommon.
What causes alveolar bone resorption? What results?
Extraction of teeth; causes alveolar process resorption, so mental foramen move superiorly.
What can happen if the mental foramen move up on the mandible?
Disappearance; the mental nerves can be exposed and injured.
What is mandibular prognathism and what causes it?
Overclosure of the jaw - due to the loss of all the teeth, which decreases the face vertically.
What forms the boundaries of the temporal fossa?
Superior/posterior = superior adn inferior temporal lines
Anterior = frontal bone + zygomatic bone
Inferior = Zygomatic arch
What part of the brain does the superior border of the temporal fossa correspond to?
The inferior limit of the cerebral hemisphere.
What makes up the zygomatic arch?
Posterior: Temporal process of zygomatic bone
Anterior: Zygomatic process of temporal bone
Where is the pterion located?
Anterior temporal fossa, 3-4 cm above zygomatic arch midpoint.
What is the pterion?
H-shaped union of the frontal, parietal, sphenoid (greater wing) and temporal bones.
what is a meatus?
A canal
What is the entrance to the eardrum consist of?
-External acoustic opening
-External acoustic meatus
-Tympanic membrane
What type of fracture usually results from a hard blow to thinner areas of calvaria?
Depressed - a bone fragment presses inward, may injure brain
What is the most frequent type of depressed calvarial fracture?
Linear - it occurs at the point of impact, but fracture lines radiate outward from it.
What is a comminuted fracture?
One in which bone is broken into several pieces.
What is a contrecoup fractuer?
One in which no fracture occurs at impact site, but on opposite side of the cranium.
What fracture of the skull can be life-threatening especially?
Fracture of the pterion.
Why is a pterion fracture so threatening?
Because it overlies the anterior branches of middle meningeal vessels.
Where exactly are the middle meningeal arteries located?
In grooves inside the lateral calvaria wall.
What results from a hard blow to the pterion?
Fracture of thin bones, rupture of mid. mening. aa anterior branch, and hematoma.
What is the occipital aspect of the cranium composed of?
-Occiput (protuberance)
-Parts of parietal bones
-Mastoid parts of temporals.
What is the inion?
a craniometric point defined by the tip of the external protuberance.
What is the external occipital crest?
Line descending from the inion to foramen magnum
What is the line extending laterally from the inion called?
Superior nuchal line
What is the lambda?
The junctio between the sagittal and lambdoid sutures.
What are accessory bones called, and where are they usually found?
Sutural bones - found near labmda or mastoid process.
What are parietal eminences?
Places on the parietal bones where they become broader and more oval.
What suture separates the frontal and parietal bones?
Coronal suture.
What suture separates the parietal bones?
Sagittal
What suture seperates the parietal and temporal bones from occipital?
Lambdoid
What forms the bregma?
Intersection of the sagittal and coronal sutures.
What is the vertex?
Most superior point of calvaria; near midpoint of sagittal suture.
What are emisary foramina?
Irregular, highly variable foramina that transmit emissary veins.
What are emissary veins?
Veins connecting scalp veins to venous sinuses of the dura mater.
What emissary foramen may be found in the parietal bones?
ironic, but its the parietal foramen.
What makes up the external inferior surface of the cranium?
alveolar arch of the maxilla - not the mandible.
What forms the hard palate?
-Palatine processes of maxillae
-Horizontal plates of palatines
What is the free on the back of the hard palate called?
Nasal spine - projects posteriorly to meet the vomer.
What are choanae?
The posterior nasal apertures that are just superior to the back of the hard palate.
What seperates the 2 choanae?
A quadrilateral bone, the VOMER.
Vomer means
plowshare
What is the sphenoid wedged between?
Frontal, temporal, and occipital bones.
In general what does the sphenoid consist of?
-A body
-3 pairs of processes: Greater wings, lesser wings, pterygoid processes.
Where are the greater and lesser wings of the sphenoid?
Spreadding laterally; the lesser wings are anterior to the greater.
What makes up the pterygoid process?
Medial/Lateral Pterygoid wings
- hang down inferiorly from the body and the other wings.
What lies in a groove just posterior/medial to sphenoid spine?
The cartilaginous part of the pharyngotympanic tube. It's under the articulation of the sphenoid greater wing and petrous part of temporal bone.
What are mandibular fossae?
Depressions in squamous temporal bones created by mandibular condyles when mouth is closed.
What forms the posterior portion of the cranial base?
Occipital bone + sphenoid
What passes through foramen magnum?
1. Spinal cord
2. Meninges
3. Vertebral arteries
4. Ant/post spinal arteries
5. Accessory nerve CN XI
Where does the cranium and vertebral column articulate?
At the occipital condyles.
What structures pass through the jugular foramen in the cranium?
-Internal Jugular vein
-CN IX - CN XI
What passes through the stylomastoid foramen?
the facial nerve and stylomastoid artery.
Where is the stylomastoid foramen?
Just posterior to the styloid process on the temporal bone.
What are the fossae on the internal surface of the cranial base?
1. Anterior cranial fossa
2. Middle cranial fossa
3. Posterior cranial fossa
What bones form the anterior fossa?
1. Frontal bone
2. Ethmoid bone
4. Body/lesser wings of sphenoid.
What is the frontal crest?
Median bony extension of the frontal bone
What is at the base of the frontal crest?
Foramen cecum
What is foramen cecum's purpose?
Gives passage to vessles in fetal development; insignificant postnatally.
what structure is just posterior to foramen cecum?
Crista galli
what lies on either side of crista galli?
the cribiform plate of the ethmoid bone.
what passes through the cribiform plate?
Olfactory nerves for CN I, on their way to the Olfactory Bulbs that lie on top of the plate.
What makes up the central part of the middle cranial fossa?
Sella turcica
what separates the middle cranial fossa from the anterior?
Sphenoidal crests (laterally)
Sphenoidal limbus (centrally)
What makes the sphenoidal crests?
Sharp posterior borders of the lesser wings.
What structure do the sphenoidal crests end in posteromedially?
Anterior Clinoid processes - the bedposts at the head of the bed.
What is just posterior to the sphenoid limbus?
Prechiasmatic sulcus
What does the prechiasmatic sulcus extend between?
the optic canals
What bones make up the lateral borders of the middle fossa?
-Sphenoid greater wings
-Squamous temporal bones
What makes up the posterior border of the middle fossa?
-Petrous part of the temporals
-Dorsum sellae (back edge of sella tursica)
What is sella turcica?
The saddle of the sphenoid
What surrounds sella turcica at each corner?
Clinoid processes - the bedposts.
What makes up the seat of sella turcica?
The hypophysicla fossa - the bed of the pituitary gland.
What 3 things compose sella turcica?
1. Tuberculum sellae (the horn)
2. Hypophysial fossa (seat)
3. Dorsum sellae (back edge)
What 4 foramina perforate the sphenoid greater wings on either side of sella turcica?
1. Superior orbital fissure
2. Foramen rotundum
3. Foramen ovale
4. Foramen spinosum
Where exactly is superior orbital fissure located? What passes through it?
Between the greater/lesser wings
-Opthalmic veins
-Opthalmic nerves (3, 4, V1, 6)
-Sympathetic opthalmic nerves
Where is foramen rotundum?
What passes through it?
Just behind the medial part of superior orbital fissure.
-Transmits V2
Where is foramen ovale?
What passes through it?
Just behind/lateral to foramen rotundum.
-Transmits V3, and a small acessory meningeal artery.
Where is foramen spinosum found?
What passes through it?
Just behind/lateral to foramen ovale.
-Transmits Middle Meningeal arteries and meningeal branch of mandibular nerve (?).
What is foramen lacerum?
An artifact resulting from dead, dried up cranium; in life it's filled with cartilage.
What passes above the cartilage that fills foramen lacerum?
Internal carotide artery
-Accompanying sympathetic/venous plexus - All on the way to the anterior boundary foraman.
What groove extends postero-laterally from foramen lacerum?
The groove for the greater petrosal nerve.
What brain structures lie within the posterior cranial fossa?
-Cerebellum
-Pons
-Medulla oblongata
What marks the incline of dorsum sellae medially?
The clivus - leads to foramen magnum.
What are the 2 large bilateral concave impressions of the posterior cranial cavity?
Cerebellar fossae
What landmark leads posteriorly from foramen magnum, dividing the cerebellar fossae?
Internal occipital crest - ending in the internal occipital protuberance.
What hole is found at the base of the petrous ridge?
Jugular foramen
What is transmitted through the jugular foramen?
-Sigmoid sinus - as the IJV
-Several cranial nerves
What hole is just in front of and above the jugular foramen?
Internal acoustic meatus
What does the internal acoustic meatus transmit?
-Facial nerve
-Vestibulocochlear nerve
-Labyrinthine artery
What goes through the hypoglossal canal?
The hypoglossal nerve :)
What is the structure of the calvaria bones like?
3 layered:
-Internal table of compact bone
-External table of compact bone
-Diploe in between
What is diploe?
Cancellous bone that contains red bone marrow in life.
By what type of ossification does the calvaria and part of cranial base form?
Intramembranous
By what type of ossification does the rest of cranial base form?
Endochondral
What sutures are present in infants that arent in adults?
-Frontal (mid frontal bone)
-Internasal
-Intermaxillary
-Mandibular symphysis
What processes in the cranial bones are lacking in infants at birth?
Mastoid processes
Styloid processes
What is the physiological result of lacking mastoid processes?
The facial nerves emerge close to the surface of the skin when they go through stylomastoid foramina.
What can be a pathological result of lacking the processes?
Forceps can damage teh facial nerve, or ear surgery.
What causes these processes to develop?
Development of sternocleidomastoid muscles and their insertion on the mastoid processes of temporal bones.
What 4 fontanelles are present in infants at birth?
-Anterior
-Sphenoidal
-Mastoid
-Posterior
What 3 things can be determined by palpating fontanelles?
1. Progress of growth of parietal/frontal bones
2. Degree of hydration
3. Level of intracranial pressure
What is the largest fontanelle and where is it located?
Anterior - located at future bregma - junction of coronal and sagittal sutures.
When does the anterior fontanelle no longer palpable?
18 months
When do the frontal suture fuse completely?
by the 8th year; except in 8% of people, who retain a metopic suture.
Where is the posterior fontanelle located?
At the future lambdoid
What is the advantage of these loose connections and soft cranial bones in infants?
Molding - changes in calvaria shape during birth