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93 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
what are the two portions of the cervical nerve plexus?
what nerve components are in each?
Superficial portion (all sensory)
-GSA
Deep portion (ansa cervicalis) (all motor)
-GSE
what are the four superficial nerves of the cervical nerve plexus?
1. Great auricular N.
2. Lesser occipital N.
3. Transverse Cervical N.
4. Supraclavicular Nerves
-Anterior, Middle, Posterior
where does the ansa cervicalis come from (nerves)?
what does it innervate?
branches of C1-C4

innervates:
1. ALL infrahyoid muscles
2. Geniohyoid
what vein passes directly on top of Sternocleidomastoid?
External Jugular
What structures does the carotid sheath envelope?
where is it found?
envelopes:
1. common carotid a.
2. Internal Jugular v.
3. Vagus Nerve

found underneath sternocleidomastoid muscle
what nerve is found directly posterior to the cervical nerve plexus?
Spinal accessory nerve
-innervates trapezius and sternocleidomastoid
what muscle(s) is/are found behind the sternohyoid m?
sternothyroid m.
thyrohyoid m.
(both connect to oblique line of thyroid cartilage)
what nerves do the superficial nerves of the cervical plexus come from?
great auricular - C2 and C3
Lesser occipital - C2 and C3
Transverse Cervical - C2 and C3
Supraclavicular n. - C3 and C4
name the four major cervical fasciae and their individual portions.
Superficial fascia
Deep fascia
-superficial (investing layer)
-Middle (pretracheal layer)
(Muscular and visceral portion)
-Deep (prevertebral layer)
Alar fascia
Carotid sheath
What is the space in between the pharyngeal constrictor muscles and the prevertebral layer of the deep fascia called? (2 names)
Retropharyngeal space

Danger space (because if something gets in it it can travel to thorax)
what are the two portions of the middle layer of the deep cervical fascia?
what is the middle layer also called?
Muscular layer
-around strap muscles
Visceral layer
-around esophagus and trachea

also called the pretracheal layer (even though it surrounds the trachea AND the esophagus)
where is the superficial cervical fascia found and what does it usually contain?
directly under the skin
usually contains fat for cushioning of arteries and nerves in it.
what does the prevertebral layer of the deep cervical fascia surround?
the vertebral column muscles
which muscles are the only ones found in the superficial fascia?
which particular muscle is found in the superficial cervical fascia of neck?
Muscles of facial expression
(innervated by CN VII)

Platysma
what are the 9 neck muscles that make up the posterior group?
Trapezius
Splenius Capitus
Semispinalis capitus
longissimus capitus
scalenus anterior
scalenus middle
scalenus posterior
longus capitis
longus colli
(trapezius, 3 capitus, 3 scalenus, 2 longus)
what are the three major groups of anterior neck muscles?
1. sternocleidomastoid
2. suprahyoid
3. infrahyoid (all innervated by ansa cervicalis C1-4, with geniohyoid)
what are the 5 suprahyoid neck muscles?

which is/are supplied by ansa cervicalis?
Hyoglossus
Stylohyoid
Mylohyoid
Digastric
Geniohyoid
(Humane strong men Do Good)

Geniohyoid
what are the two branches of the ansa cervicalis?
descendus cervicalis
descendus hypoglossi
What are the four infrahyoid muscles?
what are they innervated by?
1. Thyrohyoid
2. Omohyoid
3. Sternohyoid
4. Sternothyroid

all innervated by Ansa Cervicalis (C1-4) along with Geniohyoid
what are the two major triangles of the neck?
what splits them?
1. Anterior cervical triangle
2. Posterior cervical triangle

split by sternocleidomastoid m.
what are the two subtriangles of the posterior cervical triangle?
what splits them?
1. Subclavian (supraclavicular, minor vascular) triangle
2. Occipital triangle

split by inferior belly of omohyoid m.
what are the four subtriangles in the anterior cervical triangle?
1. submental triangle
2. submandibular (digastric) triangle
3. carotid (major vascular )triangle
4. muscular (visceral) triangle
what are the borders of the occipital triangle?
1. sternocleidomastoid
2. trapezius
3. inferior belly of omohyoid
what are the borders of the subclavian (supraclavicular, minor vascular) triangle?
1. clavicle
2. inferior belly of omohyoid
3. sternocleidomastoid
what are the borders of the submental triangle?
1. midline of neck (mylohyoid raphe)
2. hyoid bone
3. ant. belly of digastricus
what are the borders of the submandibular triangle? what is it also called?
1. ant. belly of digastricus
2. post. belly of digastricus
3. lateral border of mandible

also called digastric triangle bc it's bordered by both bellies of digastricus
what are the borders of the carotid triangle?
what is it also called?
1. sternocleidomastoid
2. post. belly of digastricus
3. superior belly of omohyoid

also called major vascular triangle (bc carotid)
what are the borders of the muscular triangle?
what is it also called?
1. midline of neck
2. hyoid bone
3. sternocleidomastoid
4. superior belly of omohyoid

also called visceral triangle
what are the four components of occipital cervical triangle?
1. superficial cervical nerves
2. spinal accessory nerve
3. occipital a. and v.
4. posterior portion of external jugular v.
what are the two components of subclavian cervical triangle?
1. subclavian a. and v.
2. supraclavicular nerves
what are the 5 contents of the submandibular cervical triangle?
1. submandibular gland
2. submandibular lymph node
3. facial a. and v.
4. lingual a. and v.
5. hypoglossal nerve
what two things travel along the hyoglossus muscle?
1. lingual artery (medial side)
2. hypoglossal nerve (lateral side)
what are the 8 contents of the carotid triangle?
1. Internal carotid a.
2. External carotid a.
3. Common carotid a.
4. facial a. and v.
5. Lingual a. and v.
6. internal jugular v.
7. vagus n.
8. Hypoglossal n.
what are the three contents of the submental cervical triangle?
1. submental a. and v.
2. submental lymph node
3. mylohyoid nerve
what are the 7 contents of the muscular cervical triangle?
1. infrahyoid muscles
2. larynx
3. trachea
4. thyroid gland
5. superior and inferior thyroid a. and v.
6. superior laryngeal nerve (off vagus, mostly sensory)
7. recurrant laryngeal nerve (off vagus by brachicephalic artery, goes to muscles of voicebox)
what three muscles make up the suboccipital triangle?
1. rectus capitis posterior major
2. obliquus capitis superior
3. obliquus capitis inferior

(innervated by suboccipital nerve)
where does the suboccipital nerve originate from?
posterior rami of C1 (only motor)
what are the four muscles of hte suboccipital triangle?
what are the two other contents?
1. Rectus capitis posterior major
2. rectus capitis posterior minor
3. Obliquus capitis superior
4. Obliquus capitis inferior

1. Vertebral a. and n.
2. suboccipital nerve (posterior rami of C1)
what are the five deep muscles of the neck?
1. Scalenus anterior
2. Scalenus middle
3. Scalenus posterior
4. Longus capitis
5. Longus colli
what is the origin and insertion of trapezius?
origin: external occipital protuberance
insertion: scapular spine
what comes between the anterior and middle scalenes?
1. brachial plexus
2. subclavian artery
is the longus capitis or longus colli longer?
what do they both run along the side of?
longus colli

spinal column
what is origin and insertion of longus colli?
origin: bodies of C1-C8 and T1-T3
insertion: anterior tubercles of transverse processes
what is origin and insertion of longus capitis?
origin: anterior tubercles of transverse processes of C3-6
insertion: inferior part of basilar part of occipital bone
what is origin and insertion of scalenus anterior?
O: Anterior tubercles of transverse processes of C3-6
I: inner border of 1st rib
what is the origin and insertion of scalenus middle?
O: posterior tubercles of transverse processes of C3-C8
I: upper border of 1st rib
what is the origin and insertion of scalenus posterior?
O: posterior tubercles of transverse processes of C6-8
I: outer surface of 2nd rib (behind serratus anterior)
which scalenes attach to 1st rib?
which scalenes attach to 2nd rib?
1st: anterior and medius
2nd: posterior
most of the muscles of the neck are innervated by what?
what are the exceptions?
most are innervated by posterior rami of C2-8

exception:
1. trapezius and Sternocleidomastoid are innervated by CN XI
2. suboccipital muscles are innervated by C1
where does the greater occipital N. branch from?
C2-3
what are the sensory branches to the back of the scalp?
1. Greater occipital N. (C2-3)
2. Lesser occipital N. (C2)
3. Third occipital N. (C3)
the hypoglossal N. runs laterally to and the Lingual A. runs medially to what?
Hyoglossus muscle
what two structures run along side the hyoglossus muscle?
Medial - Lingual A.
Lateral - Hypoglossal N. (XI)
where is the ansa cervicalis in regards to the carotid sheath?
just on the outside of it
what is the name of the muscular layer that is between the thyroid cartilage and the hyoid bone?
what runs through it?
thyrohyoid membrane

internal branch of superior laryngeal nerve (branch of X)
what is the superior laryngeal nerve a branch of?
what are its branches and where do they go?
branch of CN X (vagus)

branches:
1. Internal laryngeal - goes through thyrohyoid membrane to innervate mucosa of larynx
2. External laryngeal - goes inferiorly to innervate cricothyroid muscle
what nerve fiber types are in the internal laryngeal branch of superior laryngeal n.?
External laryngeal branch?
SVA
GSA

SVE
what is the name of the ganglion that contains all the cell bodies of the Sympathetic Nerves in the head and neck?
Superior cervical ganglion
what are the three main ganglia of the sympathetic trunk in neck?
Superior cervical ganglion
Middle cervical ganglioin
Inferior cervical ganglion
what is the name of the condition where there is an interuption in the sympathetic N. to the head, causing droopy eye, dilation of BVs, etc.?
Horner's syndrome
where is the highest valve in body?
where the subclavian vein meets the internal jugular vein
where is the external jugular vein found?
on top of sternocleidomastoid
The common facial vein and retromandibular vein come together to form what?
Internal Jugular vein
what is the jugular arch?
the arch in the middle of the neck just above the sternum that connects the two anterior jugular veinsq
where does the brachial plexus stem from?
C5
C6
C7
C8
T1
what are the five major divisions of the brachial plexus?
Rami
Trunks
Divisions
Chords
Branches
(Robert Traylor drinks cold beer)
what are the three main branches off the subclavian artery to the neck?
1. Vertebral
2. Thyrocervical Trunk
3. Costocervical Trunk
what are the branches of the vertebral branch of the subclavian artery?
There are none
what are the branches of the thyrocervical trunk of the subclavian artery?
1. Suprascapular Artery
2. Transverse Cervical artery
3. Inferior thyroid artery
a. ascending cervical
what are the branches of the costocervical trunk of the subclavian artery?
1. superior intercostal
-b/w 1st and 2nd rib
2. Deep cervical
what is the point called where the subclavian artery turns into the axial artery?
thoracocranial trunk
what two things run on top of anterior scalene?
1. Phrenic Nerve (C3, 4, 5)
2. Subclavian Vein
what are the branches of the internal carotid artery?
there are none outside of skull!
what are the two terminal branches of the External carotid Artery?
1. Maxillary artery
2. Superficial Temporal artery
what are the 8 branches of the external carotid artery?
1. superior thyroid
a. middle thyroid
2. Lingual
3. Facial
a. submental
4. ascending pharyngeal
5. occipital
6. posterior auricular
7. superficial temporal
8. maxillary
on the right side, where do the common carotid and subclavian arteries branch off?
On the left side?
Right: off brachiocephalic
Left: directly off aortic arch
what is the structure where the internal and external carotid arteries bifurcate?
carotid sinus
what two veins come together to form the common facial vein?
Retromandibular and Facial veins
the veins running alongside most of the external carotid branches drain into what?
The INTERNAL jugular
what are the two major characteristics of the cervical vertebrae?
which don't have one of these characteristics?
1. Bifid Spine
2. Transverse Processes

C1 = no spine (just a post. tubercle
C7 = blunted spine (not bifid)
what is another name for C1?
What is another name for C2?
Atlas

Axis
what is unique about the Axis (C2 vertebrae)
odontoid process (dens)
which cervical vertebrae does not have a body?
C1 (atlas)
what are the five main parts of the cervical vertebrae?
Body
Pedicle
Lamina
Spinous process
Transverse process
which cervical vertebrae contains a facet for dens (odontoid tubercle)
Atlas (C1)
what ligament runs anterior to body of vertebrae?
what does it turn into at the head?
Anterior Longitudinal Ligament

turns into the anterior atlanto-occipital membrane (bc it joins the atlas and the occipital bone)
what ligament runs posterior to the bodies of the vertebrae?
what does it turn into at the head?
Posterior Longitudinal Ligament

turns into the Tectorial membrane
which ligament becomes the posterior atlanto-occipital membrane?
suprispinous ligament
what does the supraspinous ligament turn into more superiorly?
Posterior atlanto-occipital membrane
which ligament helps hold C1 and C2 to the occipital bone (base of skull)?
Cruciate Ligament
what forms the posterior articulation for odontoid process?
what forms the anterior articulation?
Transverse portion of the cruciate ligament

Odontoid tubercle of atlas
what do the alar ligaments do?
go from odontoid process to sides of foramen magnum
what are the three main functions of the cruciate ligament?
1. protects the spinal cord from being crushed by the vertebrae by holding the odontoid process tight to atlas
2. allows side to side movement of head
3. firmly attaches atlas and axis to occipital bone