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58 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
what's a pharyngeal arch?
area formed from meeting of outpocketings of endoderm that project laterally and inpocketings of ectoderm
what are pharyngeal pouches?
are parts of pharyngeal arches that are outpockets of endoderm
what are pharyngeal grroves?
another part of pharyngeal arches that are inpockets of ectoderm
what's another name for pharyngeal arches?
branchial arches
what's a cervical sinus?
doesn't last long
formed when second arch grows over third and fourth arches
can persist after birth forming a cyst
what's the mandibular arch?
is another name for first pharyngeal arch
what's the hyoid arch?
is another name for second pharyngeal arch
what's Meckel cartilage?
cartilage of first pharyngeal arch
what's Reichert cartilage?
is cartilage of second pharyngeal arch
what characteristics make up members of phylum Chordata?
1. hollow dorsal neural tube
2. notochord
3. pharyngeal pouches
what are on the outside - grooves or pockets?
grooves
what kind of tissue fills the arches?
mesenchyme from neural crest
what structures are in each arch?
arteries, nerves
when do nerves and blood vessels develop in each arch?
4th week
what's the pharyngeal membrane?
is thin layer of endoderm and ectoderm that meets between each arch
where do gills come from in fish?
come from opening of pharyngeal membranes - place where endoderm and ectoderm meet
do the arches play a role in respiration for animals with lungs?
no
what do the arches become?
depends on the arch - remember drawing?
examples include:
bones of middle ear, muscles of facial expression, parathyroid glands
what does branchial mean?
"of the gills"
what's the relationship between the words branchial and pharyngeal?
they can be used interchangeably
what does brachial mean?
of the arm
how many arches are there in humans?
6
what kinds of structures in general do the first and second arches become?
face and hyoid apparatus
hyoid bone and muscles and ligaments attached to it
what do the third and fourth arches look like in the 5th week of development?
are smaller than 1st and 2nd
hidden from view by second arch
what is important to note about the fifth arch?
forms only briefly
in half of people, blood vessel doesn't form
what's the relationship between the sixth and the fourth arches?
they fuse
are often considered one arch
what is the fate of the blood vessels traveling through the first arch?
referred to as first aortic arches
become maxillary arteries
what's the fate of the blood vessels traveling through the second arch?
referred to as second aortic arches
become stapedial arteries in embryo only
what's the fate of the blood vessels traveling through the third arch?
referred to as third aortic arches
become common and internal carotid arteries
what's the fate of the blood vessels traveling through the fourth arch?
referred to as fourth aortic arches
on left side, become part of adult arch of aorta
on right side, become part of right subclavian artery
what's the fate of the blood vessels in teh sixth arch?
referred to as sixth aortic arches
on left side, become part of left pulmonary artery and ductus arteriosus or ligamentum arteriosum
on right side, become part f right pulmonary artery
what does the cartilage of the first pharyngeal arch, or Meckel cartilage become?
malleus, incus
what does the cartilage of the second pharyngeal arch, or Reichert cartilage become?
stapes, styloid process, superior part of hyoid bone
what does the cartilage of the third pharyngeal arch become?
inferior part of hyoid bone
what does the cartilage of the fourth and sixth pharyngeal arches become?
thyroid, cricoid, arytenoid cartilages
what muscles do the trigeminal nerve innervate?
muscles of mastication
pterygoids - lateral and medial
masseter
buccinator
mylohyoid
anterior belly of digastric
two tensors? what the hell are they?
what muscles are derived from the first pharyngeal arch?
what's the nerve of the mandibular part of first pharyngeal arch?
muscles: same muscles innervated by V3
nerve of mandibular part of first pharyngeal arch is V3
what muscles are derived from the second pharyngeal arch?
muscles of facial expression
posterior belly of digastric
stapedius
stylohyoid
what nerve comes through the second arch?
facial
what nerve comes through teh third arch?
glossopharyngeal
what muscle is dervied from third pharyngeal arch? also could imagine what muscle is innervated by glossopharyngeal
levator veli palatini muscle
what nerve passes through the fourth and sixth arch?
vagus
what cranial nerve does the recurrent laryngeal come off of?
vagus
what's the path of the recurrent laryngeal and how did it get that way?
recurrent laryngeal path:
down to mediastinum
back up between two vessels from 4th and 6th arches
innervate intrinsic laryngeal muscles

path came from embryological development:
dragged into mediastinum when heart descended into chest
relationship to great vessels established early on
what structures are derived from first pharyngeal pouch and groove?
groove - becomes external auditory canal
pouch - becomes auditory tube
membrane - becomes tympanic membrane
what does the mesenchyme ner second pharyngeal pouch become?
palatine tonsil
what does the third pharyngeal pouch become?
parathyroid glands and thymus
what does the fourth pharyngeal pouch become?
parthyroid glands
what's a common congenital defect caused by failure of pharyngeal pouch or cervical sinus to close and degenerate?
could become cervical cyst and fistula
what are fistulas?
how are cervical fistulas formed?
persistent openings
cervical fistulas come from failure of pharyngeal pouches or cervical sinus to close
what are cervical cysts?
are fluid-filled caviies
where can cervical cysts and fistulas usually be found?
anterior border of sternocleidomastoid muscle
when would a doctor become concerned about a cervical cyst or fistula?
if it were to become infected
what are branchial arch syndromes?
are collection of defects from abnormal development of one or more arches
what would the result be from a first branchial arch syndrome?
hearing would be affected
development of mandible would be affected
what are the consequences of a second arch syndrome?
maldevelopment of occlusion of stapedial artery has effect on structures that rely on its supply

problems with hearing
development of external ear problems
muscles of facial expression will be affected
an infant has a malformed right external ear nad is missing some muscles of facial expression on right side of her face. these problems are consistent with maldevelopment or occlusion of what VESSEL in embryo?
A. right stapedial artery
B. right internal carotid artery
C. right facial artery
D. right superior thyroid artery
E. right maxillary artery
A. right stapedial artery
your preceptor shows you an image of a persistent cervical sinus. what the heck is a cervical sinus?
A. cavity formed by failure of third pharyngeal membrane to close
B. cavity formed by failure of second pharyngeal membrane to close
C. cavity formed by failure of first pharyngeal membrane to close
D. cavity formed by duplicated first or second pharyngeal pouch
E. cavity formed when second arch grows over third and fourth arches
E. cavity formed when second arch grows over third and fourth arches