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145 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
  • 3rd side (hint)
anterior openings of nasal cavity (nostril)
the paired openings between the nasal cavity and the nasopharynx;

called also posterior nasal apertures
bones of the head
Inferior Concha
13 of them from his list
foramen of the head
Inferior alveolar foramen
Foramen Lacerum
Foramen Magnum
Mental foramen
Internal Acoustic Meatus
Carotid canal
Foramen Ovale
Pterygomaxillary Fissure
Foramen Rotundum
Foramen Spinosum
Superior Orbital Fissure
Optic Canal
Stylomastoid Foramen
Inferior Orbital Fissure
Zygomatico-facial foramen
Zygomatico-temporal foramen
Nasolacrimal canal
Infraorbital foramen
Frontonasal Duct
Hiatus Semilunaris
Auditory Tube
21 of them from his list
name and locate the sinuses
paranasal sinuses: the mucosa-lined air cavities in the cranial bones which communicate with the nasal cavity, including the ethmoidal, frontal, maxillary, and sphenoidal sinuses
The four extrinsic muscles in each half of the tongue
-extrinsic alter position
-intrinsic (4 of these also)alter shape
genioglossus (dorsum from XII)
hyoglossus (side and under XII)
styloglossus(side and under XII)
palatoglossus (side XI)
name the three scetions of the V craniofacial nerve, and locate landmarks around it
look at picture
pterygopalatine fossa
on each side is just posterior to the upper jaw. This small fossa communicates with the cranial cavity, the infratemporal fossa, the orbit, the nasal cavity, and the oral cavity. A major structure passing through the pterygopalatine fossa is the (maxillary division of the trigeminal nerve) maxillary nerve [V2]
infratemporal fossa
an area between the posterior aspect (ramus) of the mandible and a flat region of bone (lateral plate of the pterygoid process) just posterior to the upper jaw (maxilla)

conduit for one of the major cranial nerves—the mandibular nerve (the mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve [V3]), which passes between the cranial and oral cavities
pharyngeal isthmus
a space between the posterior wall of the pharynx and the free border of the soft palate

-where the nasal pharynx communicates with the oral pharynx during respiration
the auditory tube
-the opening is at the lateral wall of nasal pharynx
-it is located inferoposterior to the inferior nasal concha
calvaria of skull
diploe (spongy marrow of cranial bones)
superior sagittal sinus
falx cerebi (a midline fold of dura mater between the two cerebrral hemispheres)

-attaches to crista galli of ethmoid bone
inferior sagittal sinus
crista galli
straight sinus
great cerebral vein
confluence of sinuses
opening of the right tranverse sinus
occipital sinus
falx cerebelli (midline fold to seperate cerebelli hemispheres)
frontal sinus
corpus callosum
anterior cerebral artery
septum pellucidum
thalamus and interthalamic adhesion
optic chiasm
pituitary gland
sphenoidal sinus
mamillary body
mesencephalic tectum
pineal gland
cerebraal aqueduct
fourth ventricle
cisterna magna
basilar artery
left vertebral artery
medulla oblongata
spinal cord
anterior arch atlas
body and dens of atlas
pharyngeal tonsil
ostium (opening) of auditory tube
nasal pharynx
middle nasal concha
inferior nasal concha
hard palate
soft palate and uvula
hyoid bone
genioglossus muscle
geniohyoid muscle
mylohyoid muscle
thyroid cartilage
cricoid cartilage
oral pharynx
laryngeal pharynx
pterygopalatine fossa

card 1
basic info
-communicates with the cranial cavity, the infratemporal fossa, the orbit, the nasal cavity, and the oral cavity
-a major structure passing through is (maxillary division of the trigeminal nerve) maxillary nerve [V2]
-The fossa is seen through a narrow cleft, the pterygomaxillary fissure, between the pterygoid process of the sphenoid bone and the posterior wall of the maxilla. The medial wall of the fossa is the vertical plate of the palatine bone
-parasympathetic fibers from the facial nerve [VII] and sympathetic fibers originating from the T1 spinal cord level join branches of the maxillary nerve [V2] in the pterygopalatine fossa
seven exits and entrances of the pterygopalatine fossa
1. The foramen rotundum
2. The pterygoid canal
3. The sphenopalatine foramen
4. pharygeal foramen
5. pterygomaxillary fissure
6. The greater foramen
7. lesser palatine foramen
The foramen rotundum
-enters the superoposterior aspect of the pterygopalatine fossa
-large hole in top portion of landers drawing
-is a canal that runs through
-trigeminal nerve branch the (maxillary nerve [V2] passes through)
The opening pterygoid (vidian) canal
-inferior and medial to the foramen rotundum
-just below the rotundum in landers drawing
-sympathetic fibers from the internal carotid plexus join to form the nerve running through the pterygoid canal
The sphenopalatine foramen
-The foramen opens medially into the lateral wall of the nasal cavity
-nasal nerve travels through this
-situated on the superior aspect of the medial wall of the fossa
bones of the head
Arterial Branches of head
External Carotid Branches
Lingual (floor of mouth)
Facial (floor of mouth)
Maxillary (maxilla)
Superficial Temporal
Venous Tributaries
Jugular Venous System
Superficial Temporal
External Jugular
Internal Jugular
Cranial Nerves

just name them
V, trigeminal
VII, facial nerve
IX, glossopharyngeal
XII= hypoglossal nerve,
hypoglossal nerve
it supplies motor fibres to all of the muscles of the tongue, except the palatoglossus muscle
glossopharyngeal nerve
- It receives sensory fibres from the posterior one-third of the tongue, the tonsils, the pharynx, the middle ear and the carotid body.
-It supplies parasympathetic fibres to the parotid gland via the otic ganglion.
- It supplies motor fibres to stylopharyngeus muscle
- It contributes to the pharyngeal plexus
facial nerve
-controls the muscles of facial expression, and
-taste to the anterior two-thirds of the tongue.
-It also supplies preganglionic parasympathetic fibers to several head and neck ganglia
facial nerve branches

All Two Zebras Bit My Cousin
-auricular (ear)
-temporal (top of head)
-zygomatic (eye)
-buccal (cheek)
-mandibular (chin)
-cervical (jaw)
trigeminal nerve
-The fifth nerve is primarily a sensory nerve, but it also has certain motor functions (biting, chewing and swallowing
three branches of trigeminal nerve
-V1 opthalmic (sensory)carries sensory information from the scalp and forehead, the upper eyelid, the conjunctiva and cornea of the eye, the nose (including the tip of the nose), the nasal mucosa, the frontal sinuses and parts of the meninges (the dura and blood vessels).
-V2 maxillary (sensory)
caries sensory information from the lower eyelid and cheek, the nares and upper lip, the upper teeth and gums, the nasal mucosa, the palate and roof of the pharynx, the maxillary, ethmoid and sphenoid sinuses, and parts of the meninges.
-V3 mandibular (sensory and motor)
carries sensory information from the lower lip, the lower teeth and gums, the floor of the mouth, the anterior ⅔ of the tongue, the chin and jaw (except the angle of the jaw, which is supplied by C2-C3), parts of the external ear, and parts of the meninges
Inferior alveolar foramen
(mandibluar foramen)
the opening on the medial surface of the ramus of the mandible, leading into the mandibular canal.
1 Frontal sinus
7 Sphenoidal sinus
8 Pituitary gland
13 Pharyngeal recess
14 Salpingopharyngeal old
15 Tubal elevation
16 Opening of auditory tube
18 Soft palate
19 Hard palate
34 Atrium
37 Levator elevation
38 Salpingopalatal fold
39 Inferior meatus
40 Inferior nasal concha
41 Middle meatus
42 Middle nasal concha
43 Superior meatus
44 Superior nasal concha
45 Spheno-ethmoidal recess
name these structures
Foramen Lacerum

what passes through
-triangular hole in the base of the skull located at the base of the medial pterygoid plate.
-the artery of pterygoid canal,
-the nerve of pterygoid canal, and some
-venous drainage.
Foramen Magnum

what passes through it
-the great hole at the bottom of the skull

the transmission of the medulla oblongata and its membranes, the foramen magnum transmits the accessory nerve (the eleventh of the twelve cranial nerves), the vertebral arteries, the anterior and posterior spinal arteries, the membrana tectoria and alar ligaments.
Mental foramen
-located at the front of the mandible on both sides

the mental nerve passes through this
Internal Acoustic Meatus

what passes through
a canal in the temporal bone of the skull that carries nerves from inside the cranium towards the middle and inner ear compartments.
-transmits the facial and vestibulocochlear nerves and the internal auditory branch of the basilar artery
Carotid canal
-On the interior surface of the temporal bone
-transmits into the cranium the internal carotid artery, and the carotid plexus of nerves.
-Sympathetics to the head also pass through the carotid canal. They have several motor functions: raise the eyelid (superior tarsal muscle), dilate pupil, innervate sweat glands of face and scalp and constricts blood vessels in head.
Foramen Ovale
foramen ovale is situated in the anterior part of the sphenoid bone, posteriolateral to the foramen rotundum
-Several nerves, arteries and veins pass through the foramen ovale. They are as follows:

* Mandibular nerve (the third branch (V3) of the trigeminal nerve)
* Accessory meningeal artery (small meningeal or parvidural branch, sometimes derived from the middle meningeal artery)
* Lesser superficial petrosal nerve (note: the lesser superficial petrosal nerve sometimes passes through a special canal (canaliculus innominatus of Arnold), situated medial to the foramen spinosum)
* Emissary veins (from the cavernous sinus to the pterygoid plexus)

The contents of this foramen neatly form the acronym 'MALE'.
Pterygomaxillary Fissure
transmits the terminal part of the internal maxillary artery.
-is the large hole on the left side of landers drawing
-a cleft just posterior to the inferior orbital fissure between the lateral pterygoid plate and the maxilla
Foramen Spinosum

what passes through
located in the base of the skull, on the sphenoid bone, situated lateral to the foramen ovale, in a posterior angle
- * the middle meningeal artery
* a recurrent branch, the nervus spinosus, from the mandibular nerve (the mandibular nerve is the third branch (V3) of the trigeminal nerve)
Optic Canal
transmits the optic nerve and ophthalmic artery (with accompanying sympathetic nerve fibres) into the orbital cavity
-superior suface of sphenoid bone
how many bones in the skull
unpaired bones of the skull
paired bones of the skull
Inferior Concha
(3) Ear Ossicles
The cranium can be subdivided into
•an upper part (the calvaria), which surrounds the cranial cavity containing the brain;

•a lower anterior part—the facial skeleton (viscerocranium)
The bones forming the calvaria are the
paired temporal and parietal bones, and the unpaired frontal, sphenoid, ethmoid, and occipital bones.
The bones forming the facial skeleton are the
paired nasal bones, palatine bones, lacrimal bones, zygomatic bones, maxillae, inferior nasal conchae, and the unpaired vomer.
Anterior Ethmoidal Foramen
anterior ethmoidal nerves and vessels.
Carotid Canal
internal carotid artery, deep petrosal nerve and other postganglionic
sympathetics (carotid plexus).
Cribriform Plate
olfactory nerves
Facial Canal
facial nerve proper
Foramen Cecum
emissary vein from nasal cavity to superior sagital sinus.
Foramen Lacerum
meningeal br. of ascending pharyngeal a., emissary v. from pterygoid
Foramen Magnum
junction of spinal cord and brainstem, anterior and posterior spinal arteries
and veins, alar ligaments, tectorial membrane, apical ligament, spinal
accessory nerve.
Foramen Ovale
mandibular br. of trigeminal nerve, accessory meningeal a., lesser petrosal n.
Foramen Spinosum
middle meningeal a., reccurent br. of mandibular n.
Foramen Vesalii
emissary vein from pterygoid venous plexus.
Greater Palatine Foramen
anterior (greater) palatine nerves and vessels, posterior (lesser)
palatine nerves and vessels. These are branches of pterygopalatine or descending palatine nerves
and vessels.
Hiatus of the Facial(greater superficial petrosal) canal
greater superficial petrosal n., and
petrosal branches of middle meningeal artery.
Hypoglossal Canal
hypoglossal nerve and meningeal branch of ascending pharyngeal a.
Incisive (Nasopalatine) Canal
nasopalatine branches of descending palatine nerves and
Inferior Orbital (Sphenomaxillary) Fissure
maxillary nerve branches zygomatic
infraorbital,lacrimal br. of greater petrosal n., Infraorbital vessels.
(Inferior) Tympanic Canaliculus
tympanic branch of glossopharyngeal nerve (will become
lesser petrosal) , tympanic br. of ascending pharyngeal a..
Infraorbital foramen
infraorbital br. of maxillary n., infraorbital vessels.
Internal Acoustic Meatus
vestibulocochlear n., facial n., internal auditory br. of basilar a.
Jugular Foramen
internal jugular v., glossopharyngeal n., vagus n., spinal accessory n.
Mandibular (Inferior Alveolar) Foramen
inferior alveolar n. and vessels.
Mental Foramen
mental n. and vessels.
Mastoid Canaliculus (Tympanomastoid Fissure)

Mastoid Foramen
auricular branch of vagus n.

mastoid branch of occipital a., emissary v.
Nasolacrimal Canal
tear duct
Optic Foramen
optic n., ophthalmic a., central retinal a.
Petrotympanic (Squamotympanic) Fissure
chorda tympanic branch of the facial n.
Pharyngeal Canals (along with vomerovaginal canals)
pharyngeal br. of maxillary a.,
pharyngeal brs. of greater petrosal n.
Posterior Superior Alveolar (Maxillary) Foramen
posterior superior alveolar n. and vessels
Pterygoid (Vidian) Canal
nerve of pterygoid canal (combined sympathetic postganglionics of
deep petrosal nerve and parasympathetic preganglionics from greater
petrosal nerve.)
Pterygomaxillary Fissure
maxillary a., posterior superior alveolar n.
Pterygopalatine (Descending Palatine) Canal
descending palatine nerves and vessels.
Pterygopalatine (Sphenopalatine) Foramen
pterygopalatine vessels, nasopalatine n., posterior
nasal nerves., pharyngeal nerves and vessels.
Stylomastoid Foramen
facial nerve proper
Superior Orbital Fissure
occulomotor, ophthalmic br. of trigeminal n., trochlear n.,abducent n..
ophthalamic v.
Supraorbital Fissure
supraorbital n. and vessels
Zygomaticofacial Foramen
zygomaticofacial br. of zygomatic n.of zygomatic br. of maxillary
Zygomatico-orbital Foramen
zygomatic n. of V2
Zygomaticotemporal Foramen
zygomaticotemporal br. of zygomatic br. of maxillary
superciliary arches
superior to the rim of the orbit on each side
-Between these arches is a small depression (the glabella) the unibrow area
coronal suture
In upper regions, the frontal bone articulates with the parietal bone
lambdoid suture
parietal bone then articulates with the occipital bone
-is in a upside down V shape
sphenoparietal suture
frontal bone articulates with the greater wing of the sphenoid bone and articulates with the parietal bone
sphenosquamous suture
frontal bone articulates with the anterior edge of the temporal bone
sutural bones or wormian bones
at the lamboid suture
-between the parietal bones and the occipital bone
zygomatic arch is made of what two bones
-zygomatic process of temporal bone
-temporal process of zygomatic bone
Three parts of the sphenoid bone
-a centrally placed body, -paired greater and lesser wings projecting laterally from the body,
-and two downward projecting pterygoid processes immediately lateral to each choana
pharyngeal tubercle
Prominent on the basilar part (next to the sphenoid) of the occipital bone
-a bony protuberance for the attachment of parts of the pharynx to the base of the skull