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52 Cards in this Set

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Immunity
the ability of the body to defend itself against infectious agents, foreign cells, & abnormal body cells (cancer cells)
Nonspecific defense
effective against any foreign agent entering the body, innate immunity
Specific defense
effective against particular identified foreign agents, acquired immunity
leukocytes
white blood cells, destroy infectious agents through phagocytosis
interferon
group of substances that stimulate the immune system
inflammation causes
allergens, chemical agents, trauma, foreign substances, physical agents, pathogenic organisms
hyperemia
increased amount of blood flow to the site of injury, causes heat and redness
neutrophils/polymorphs
leukocytes that destroy harmful invaders, engulf cell debris also
histamine
substance released by damaged tissue, causes the capillary walls to become more permeable
chemotaxis
attraction of white blood cells to the site of inflammation
inflammatory exudate
plasma and white blood cells that escape from the capillaries, causes swelling
leukocytosis
excessive production of white blood cells, sign of infection or inflammation
monocytes/macrophages
follow polymorphs to clear debris
fibrin
a plasma protein in the exudate, essential for blood-clotting
pyogenic
bacteria that cause pus formation
supprative
inflammation with pus formation
fibroblasts
connective tissue cells, produce fibers that close the gap of wounds
adhesions
caused when connective tissue fibers join together adjacent structures
keloid
raised and hard scar, really a benign tumor
antigen
foreign element that triggers the immune response
humoral immunity
includes antibodies
cell-mediated immunity
includes activated lymphocytes
lymphatic system
network that conducts and filters lymph, destroy invading organisms, filters
T lymphocytes
cell-mediated immunity, produced by the thymus gland
B lymphocytes
humoral immunity, some interact w/ antigens, some turn into plasma cells
plasma cells
divide rapidly and produce large numbers of antibodies
antibodies
plasma proteins, gamma globulins called immunoglobulins (Ig), bind to antigens and tag them for destruction
memory cells
B lymphocytes that remain dormant until reactivated by the same antigen, cause a more potent and rapid response the next exposure
cytotoxic T cells
killer cells, proteins bind and release poisonous substances to kill cells or organisms w/ a specific antigen
helper T cells
increase activity of killer cells, stimulate B cells, secrete lymphokines that increase response of other lymphoid cells
IgG immunoglobulin
primary & secondary immune responses, neutralizes toxins & viruses
IgM immunoglobulin
protects newborns
IgA immunoglobulin
localized protection at mucosal surfaces
IgE immunoglobulin
allergy
IgD immunoglobulin
activates B cells
allergy/hypersensitivity
immune response that is destructive, causes tissue damage & disorder rather than immunity
basophils & mast cells
IgE attaches to them and then binds to the allergen, which breaks down, contain the chemicals heparin, serotonin, bradykinin, & histamine
anaphylactic shock
systemic allergy, throughout the body, life threatening
epinephrine
used to reduce immune response and stabilize the vascular system in allergic reactions
4 types of hypersensitivites
type 1-allergic, anaphylactic
type 2-cytotoxic, cytolytic
type 3-immune complex
type 4-cell-mediated, delayed
Rh factor
positive have an extra antigen (Rh factor) on their red blood cells
autoimmune diseases
when individuals develop antibodies to their own tissues or self-antigens
autoantibodies
attack the individual's tissues
systemic lupus erythematosus SLE
noncontagious inflammatory disease
discoid
mild form of lupus
scleroderma
chronic, progressive autoimmune disorder of the skin
human immunodeficiency virus HIV
retrovirus, carries its genetic info as RNA not DNA
active immunity
the person recieves a vaccine or toxoid as the antigen and forms antibodies to counteract it
vaccine
low dose of dead or inactivated bacteria or viruses
toxoid
chemically altered toxin, will not cause disease
passive immunity
doses of preformed antibodies from immune serum of an animal
cortisol
hormone increased by stress, decreases the production of antibodies & substances released by leukocytes that stimulate the immune system