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120 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Child development
scientific study of processess of change and stability from conception through adolescence.
Baby Biography
kept by parents. Similar to scrapbooking.
Development Aspects
Charels Darwin said ppl were better understood if their background was known
John Locke (1632-1704)
Viewed infant as a blank slate on whom parents and teachers can write to create the kind of person they want.
Jean Jacques Rousseau
noble savages. people are born good and become warped only by repressive envirnments
Charles Darwin
Theory of evolution. natural selection. horses->girafes.
Alfred Binet
developed the first individual intelligence test. standardized testing
John Dewey
Educator. viewed developmental psychology as a tool for fostering socially desirable values. study of children in their social setting.
Maria Montessori
childhood education based on self-chosen activities. simple to complex tasks. no social interaction
Prenatal development
conception-40 wks
1 yrs-3 yrs
Early childhood
3 yrs- 6yrs
Middle childhood
6 yrs- puberty
General influences on development
1. indivdual differences
2. Heredity
3. Environment
4. Maturation
Major contextual influences on development
1. nuclear family
2. extended family
3. socioeconomic status
4. Risk factors.
5. culture and ethnicity.
nonnormative influence
go through a usual influence at a wrong time.
a group of people with a shared experience
critical period and sensitive period
time of dev. where something should happen for development to move on.
molding brain through experiences. children have more of this than adults.
things we know to be true that can help predict
educated guess. possible explanation that must be tested.
Locke regarding development
continuous, mechanistic, ramp. earlier behavior predicts later behavior. crawl, walk, crawl a little
Rousseau regarding development
stages, organismic, stairs. finish a certain peice of dev. you get to the next stair when prev. stair is done and never go back.
behavior is based on subconscious.
Freud- stages of dev.
oral, anal, phallic, latency
Freud's parts of personality
id, ego, superego
infantile part of personality. pleasure seeking. must have needs met instantly
helps id to be patient. not the only one in the world
mediator between id and ego
Four stages of Erikson important to this class
trust vs. mistrust, autonomy vs. shame, initiative vs. guilt, industry vs. inferiority
trust vs. mistrust
(0-1 1/2 yrs)dependence on caretaker for consistent care and affection. The virtue of hope leading to trust in the world.
autonomy vs. shame
(18mnts- 3 yrs) Child develops a balance of independence over self-doubt and shame. Need to adjust to the demands of toilet trainging and other societal demands while retaining a sense of autonomy. Danger of long lasting sense of shame or doubt. Virtue of will.
initiative vs. guilt
developing a sense of right and wrong which controls behaviors but without going tooo far and becoming guilt-ridden by failures. Virtue of purpose
industry vs. inferiority
developing a sense of work ethic. virtue of skill.
your dev. is shaped from cognitive abilities. Change comes from how you learn about your envirnoment. behavior is shaped by envirnment
classical conditioning-watson
albert-mouse, shocked kid when touched mouse
possitive reinforcement
give something to reinforce behavior
negative reinforcement
take soemthing away to reinforce behavior
stop or change a behavior
Social learning
Bandura. learning based on people around you. immitation
social cognitive learning
a way you act on environment to learn from. a child jumps on the couch to see how adult will react.
observational learning
stay or leave. learn from observing
how a child incoorporates new information. see cat say dog
faced with something that doesnt fit- what do they change to understand. change some idea to understand cat.
information processing
what goes on in brain. structures of brain. how accomodate new info.
cognitive neuroscience
new technology used to understand brain activity. which part of hte brain is used at certain times.
Bolby. approach to learning combining biology and evolution. survival of the fitest.
contextual idea
how society/environment helps shape learning.
Bioecological approah
bronfenbrenner. we are not in our own world in learning. we are in the middle surrounded by many systems.
sociocultural learning
vigotsky. zone of proximal development.
zone of proximal development
learning zone. needs help from others to be brought there. not too hard...not too easy.
children don't learn by themselves. they need parents, teachers, siblings, to help with learning
scientific method
identify problem, hypothesis, collect dat, analyze data, publish findings
data collection: self reports
journals, interviews, questionnaires
behavioral and performance measures
valid, reliable, standardized
types of observations
naturalistic(playground) laboratory
Longitudinal Research design
one child or group. long term situation. very expensive. need guarantee the family will cooporate for a number of years.
cross-sectional study
pices of groups. 2 kids from grade 2 and 2 kids from grade 5. much quicker than longitudinal. con- 2 kids cannot accuratly portray entired 2 and5 grade population.
sequential research design
combine both. 2 from each but follow for years and see how they change. depends on who will still with the research for that long
don't use real names. respece. informed consent.
formed when egg and sperm unite
dizygotic twin
two eggs
monozygotic twin
one egg. identical. same genetic makeup.
way we present ourselves. shy, enthusiastic. mono twins have diff temp.
must have tried for 12-18 months.
reasons for infertility
male may have low sperm count. female may have blocked phalopean tubes.
what you look like physcially.
cannot see. why you look the way you look.
is brown hair dominant or recessive
cephalocaudal principle
we grow head to tail. heard first which is why it is so big when first born.
proximodistal principle
growth starts in middle and goes out.
stages of development
germinal, zygote, embryonic, fetal
germinal stage
begins at fertilization and lasts two weeks
most women don't know they're pregnant at this stage.
embryonic stage
2-8 wks. an embrio is growing inside. spontaneous abortion(miscarage) many women still don't know they're pregnant.
fetal stage
8 wks-birth. much growth. organs forming. fetal activity. sensory development memory.
sensory devlopment memory
baby respons to mothers voice respond to women
sensory development memory
baby responds to mothers voice. respond to women rather than men. respond to native language more than othres.
Teratogenic Influences-list 4
drugs, alcohol, nicotine, caffeine
115,000 deaths per yr. more chance to be born with low birth weight. child born prematurely. greater risk for cancer.
no definate research
maternal nutrition
eating healthy. fetus will always take what it needs. eating nutritious and with more calories is best for mom and baby.
3 types of prenatal assessment
ultrasound, amnicentesis, cvs
common for most women. used to measure growth, age, how many, structural abnomalities, gender.
sample of amniofluid taken. only recommended to women over 35. occurs at 15-18 wks of pregnancy. tests for abnomalities.
test for abnormalities. 8-13 wks. option for more women than the amniocentesis.
maternal age
over 35- increased risk for more complications during pregnacy and @ child birth. also teen parents at risk.
paternal risks
if he's been exposed to led, smoked marajuana, tobaco, radiation. effects sperm. can cause abnormalities.
outside environmental hazards
chemicals, radiation
woman's body getting ready to have baby. 2 wks before birth. estrogen will rise. uterus contracts. cervix gets bendy.
4 stages of child birth
dialation of cervix. descent and emergence of baby. expultion of umbilical cord and placental. contraction of the uterus, recovery of the mother.
what happens during dialtion of cervix
painful contractions, cervix is widening.
electronic fetal monitor checks for...
fetal heartbeat
3 methods of delivery
cesarean, natural, prepared
taken from abdomen. horizontal cut. emergency or often won't do vaginal birth after cesarean has ever been done.
prepared birth
more social support. coach for breathing. someone to take your mind off the pain.
what percentage of women choose hospital settings
nurse midwifes
R.N. aprentus ships. attend childbirth. at home or hopsital along with doctor. if the woman is at low risk might choose midwife.
medicated and unmedicated delivery
rarely unconcious. epidural in spine cuts of feeling waste down. meds cross into bloodstream. mom and baby may seem wide awake or grogy.
Neonatal period
first month of life
size and appearance
20inches. 7.5 pounds. boys longer and heavier. first borns way the least.
what will happen to neonate in for 2-3 days
will loose 10% weight...water weight
what percentage of the body is the head
soft spong. skull is sparate pieces so they can shift to fit through vaginal canal. fuse after 6 mnths.
fur/hair that covers body. coating of hair. lost in first few days
vernix caseosa
oily substance covering body. protects against infections
loss of oxygen
fetal waste. green black tar
neonatal jaundice
problem with liver. happens to 50% of babies. soved by putting baby under flourecent light.
apgar scale
@1 min. and @5 min old. make sure healthy and at normal range. done to all children.
brazelton neonatal behavioral assessment
takes 30 min. tests that a child is behaving ok. tests reflexes. not done to all children.
birth trauma
injuries sustained during birht. due to oxygen...physical injury...would find during assessment
complications of birth list 5
low weight, preterm baby, small, postmature infant, protective factors,
low weight
less than 5.5 lbs. premature. low weight for age.
preterm baby
born before 37th wk of gestation
small for gestational age infants
less than 90% weight of other babies that were born at same age.
postmature infants
42 wks and older. often thin babies. don't get adiquate blood supply.
protective factors
ifluences an infant will have to fight off compolications-temperment, healthy sucking, reflexes, caring adult to do all right things, community @ large.
forms bond with first thing it sees-animal instinct
what happens to marriage when baby is born
marrital satisfaction declines. all love going to baby.