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62 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is Development?
process of change over a period (conception thru age 6)
What is Norms?
-ages and stages, typical behavior, context, principles that tell us about development
What is Biological Development?
-physical maturation
-motor skills
What is Cognitive Development?
-thought processes
What is Socio/emotional development?
-social and personal experiences
Can divide child into what 3 Developmental Stages?
-Biological Development

-Cognitive Development

-Socio/emotional Development
What are the 3 Periods of Development?
-Prenatal= conception to birth

-Infancy= birth to 24 months

-Early Childhood= 2 to 6 (NAEYC argues 8yrs.)
What are 3 Developmental Issues/Controversies?
-Nature vs. Nurture= is development inborn of do you learn it over time

-Continuity vs. Discontinuity= development happens continually or in steps/stages

-Early or late development is more important
What is a theory?
-a framework that tells you what to look at

-a way of focusing

examples: a window, a pair of glasses
What are the theories of Child Development?
What is Psychoanalytic theory?
-Who= Freud and Erikson
-Focus= Emotional and Personality Development
-Personality is the tool for meeting needs in socially acceptable way
What are the Freudian Stages?
What are the Basic Beliefs of the Psychoanalytic Theory?
-behavior is surface characteristic

-stages- energy is "deposited" in a different erogenous zone in each

-task- satisfy that zone's need(in socially acceptable way)
What is the Id?
-all about self

-want what you want when you want it!
What is the Ego?
-realize how things are (reality)

-can't always have what you want

-balance of other two
What is Superego?
-right and wrong

-learn rules

-observe parents
Why the fuss of research?
-scientific method insures increased validity of conclusions about children
What are the steps of the Scientific Method?
- Conceptualize the problem

- Form hypothesis/predict, use theory

- Collect info./data

-Draw conclusions/analyze data

-Revise conclusions and theory
What are the Research Designs?
-Correlational Design
-Experimental Design
-Quasi-experimental Design
-Cross-sectional Design
-Longitudinal-sequential Design
-Microgenetic Design
What is the Correlational design?
-researcher gathers information without altering participants' experiences

-Limitations= cannot infer cause and effect
What is the Correlational coefficient(r)?
- number that ranges from 1.00 to -1.00

-the larger the number, regardless of the sign, the stronger the correlation

-describes the strength and direction

-r of 0 indicates no relationship
What is negative correlation?
-as one variable gets higher, the other gets lower
What is Experimental design?
- a true experiment must meet 2 conditions:
-random assignment of participants
-manipulated independent variable
(permits us to infer cause and effect)

-Experimental Group

-Control Group
What is an Experimental Group?
-subjects who receive the treatment
What is the Control Group?
- receive no treatment or neutral treatment
What is the Quasi-experimental design?
-experimental design but random assignment not possible
What are some factors that limit random assignment when studying children?
What is Cross-Sectional Design?
-participants of different ages are studied at the same time
What is Longitudinal-Sequential Design?
-both longitudinal and cross-sectional components
What is Microgenetic Design?
-change is tracked from the time it begins until it stabilizes, as participants master a new task
-modification of longitudinal approach
-useful for studying cognitive development
What is Longitudinal Research?
-participants are studied repeatedly at different ages

-Issues: Cohort effects-children born in one period of time are influenced by particular cultural and historical conditions
What refers to ethics?
-Organizations (SRCD) and special groups (Human Subjects Committee) monitor research on humans, especially children
-Research Rights= protect from harm, informed consent (verbal & written) from parents, institutions, children over 7
-Privacy= anonymous, confidential
-Knowledge of results
-Beneficial treatments
What do we look for when evaluating research?
-importance of findings
-promotion of new ideas
-choice of subjects
-appropriateness of methods
What must a cell do before it divides in two?
-make an exact copy of its DNA
How many chromosomes does a normal human cell contain?
-46, arranged in 23 pairs
What is formed during Meiosis?
-the sex cells

-takes years to fulfill
When does ovulation occur?
-in the middle of 28 day menstrual cycle
What is the largest cell in the human body?
-the egg (female)
How do sperm divide?
-first they divides twice by Mitosis

-then twice by Meiosis
What does the term "Ferning" mean?
-the most fertile time of a woman's cycle
How soon must egg be fertilized once it reached the fallopian tube?
-within 24 hours

-time is critical!
What does precise moment of conception refer to?
-the exact moment when 23 duplicate DNA chromosomes of each parent meet
What is a fertilized egg at 7 weeks called?
28 days after fertilization....
-the fertilized egg is the size of a small pea

-contains a small heart
By 8 weeks the embryo has become....
-a fetus

-everything is in place

-2 inches long
When do spontaneous movements of muscles occur?
-9 weeks
When is it first possible to determine the sex of a fetus?
-at 12 weeks
When are the genitalia very developed?
-18 weeks
When can a fetus begin hearing sounds?
-24 weeks
What is the most important sound?
- mother's voice
What is the Psychoanalytic Theory according to the book?
-describes development as primarily unconscious and heavily colored by emotion.
-behavior is merely a surface characteristic and the symbolic workings of the mind have to be analyzed to understand behavior
What is Erikson's psychosocial theory?
-includes eight stages of human development
-each stage consists of a unique developmental task that confronts individuals with a crisis that must be faced
What are Cognitive Theories?
-they emphasize their conscious thoughts
What is Piaget's Cognitive Developmental Theory?
-states that children actively construct their understanding of the world and go through fours stages of cognitive development
-we adapt in two ways:
-assimilation=incorporate new info into existing knowledge
-accommodation=adjust their knowledge to fir new info and experiences
What is Vygotsky's Sociocultural Cognitive Theory?
- emphasizes how culture and social interaction guide cognitive development
-knowledge is not general from within, but rather constructed through interact9on with other people and objects is culture
What is the information-processing theory?
-emphasizes that individuals manipulate information, monitor it, and strategize about it
-processes of memory and thinking are central
-does not describe development as stagelike
What is Behavioral Theories?
-study only what can be directly observed and measure
-development is observable behavior that can be learned through experience with the environment
-Pavlov, Skinner, Bandura
What is Pavlov's Classical Conditioning?
-after a neutral stimulus has been paired with a stimulus that automatically produces a response, that response will be elicited by the previously neutral stimulus on its own
-explains how we develop many involuntary responses
-Watson, Albert, and white rat
What is Skinner's Operant Conditioning?
-the consequences of a behavior produce changes in the probability of the behavior's occurrence
-rewards and punishments shape individuals' development
What is Bandura's Social Cognitive Theory? (under behavioral)
-emphasize that behavior, environment, and person/cognition are the key factors in development
-focused on observational learning=people cognitively represent the behavior of others and then sometimes adopt this behavior themselves
-Model with arrows show how behavior, person/cognitive, and environment are related reciprocally
What is the Ethological theory?
-stresses that behavior is strongly influenced by biology, is tied to evolution, and is characterized by critical or sensitive periods
-Lorenz and greylag geese
-Bowlby and attachment with caregiver
What is the Ecological theory?
-Bronfenbrenner's environmental systems theory that focuses on five environmental systems
-microsystem(individual lives)
-mesosystem (connections among micro)
-exosystem (experiences in another setting)
-macrosystem (culture)
-chronosystem (patterning events and transitions over life course; time)